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Rainbow Warrior (1955)

Rainbow Warrior (1955)

12 knots (engines)
5–7 knots (sail) [ 1 ]

The Rainbow Warrior was a former UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) trawler called the Sir William Hardy. It was purchased by the environmental organization Greenpeace UK - an office established in May 1977 with Susi Newborn, Denise Bell, David McTaggart. Charlie Hutchison and Allan Thornton as directors. The ship was active in supporting a number of Greenpeace whaling. seal hunting. nuclear testing and nuclear waste dumping campaigns during the late 1970s and early 1980s. She was sunk whilst in Auckland harbour in New Zealand by operatives of the French intelligence service (DGSE ) on 10 July 1985, killing photographer Fernando Pereira .

Early career

The Sir William Hardy was built in 1955, in Aberdeen. Scotland and entered service with the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. She served until 1977 when she was put up for sale by the Ministry. She was acquired by Greenpeace UK at a cost of £37,000 and underwent a four-month refit. She was re-launched on 2 May 1978 as the Rainbow Warrior (named by Susi Newborn after the book Warriors of the Rainbow which had been given to her by Greenpeace founder, Robert Hunter. The book's rhetoric included this passage: "The world is sick and dying, the people will rise up like Warriors of the Rainbow. [ 2 ] ). After a series of high-profile campaigns in the North Atlantic, including two escapes from captivity in Spain resulting in the resignation of the Admiral of the Spanish Navy, the Rainbow Warrior made her way to North America where she underwent modification in 1981 and the fitting of sails in a ketch rig in 1985.

With Greenpeace

In early 1985, the Rainbow Warrior was in the Pacific Ocean campaigning against nuclear testing. In May, she re-located some 300 Marshall Islanders from Rongelap Atoll. which had been polluted by radioactivity from past American nuclear tests at the Pacific Proving Grounds. [ 3 ]

She then travelled to New Zealand to lead a flotilla of yachts protesting against French nuclear testing at the Moruroa Atoll in the Tuamotu Archipelago of French Polynesia. During previous nuclear tests at Moruroa, protest ships had been boarded by French commandos after sailing into the shipping exclusion zone around the atoll. For the 1985 tests, Greenpeace intended to monitor the impact of nuclear tests and place protesters on the island to monitor the blasts. The French Government infiltrated the Auckland offices of the organisation and discovered these plans.

The bombing

Memorial to the Rainbow Warrior at Matauri Bay. Northland

The Rainbow Warrior. then captained by Peter Willcox. was sabotaged and sunk just before midnight NZST on 10 July 1985, by two explosive devices attached to the hull by operatives of the French intelligence service (DGSE ). One of the twelve people on board, photographer Fernando Pereira. returned to the ship after the first explosion to attempt to retrieve his equipment, and was killed when the ship was sunk by the second, larger explosion.

A murder enquiry began and a number of the French agents were tracked and arrested. The revelations of French involvement caused a political scandal and the French Minister of Defence Charles Hernu resigned. The captured French agents were imprisoned, but later transferred to French custody. They were confined to the French military base on the Island of Hao for a brief period before being released. After facing international pressure, France agreed to pay compensation to Greenpeace, and later admissions from the former head of the DGSE revealed that three teams had carried out the bombings. In addition to those successfully prosecuted, a two-man team had carried out the actual bombing, but their identities have never been officially confirmed. [ 4 ] On 22 September 1985, the French Prime Minister Laurent Fabius summoned journalists to his office to read a 200-word statement in which he said: "The truth is cruel," and acknowledged there had been a cover-up, he went on to say that "Agents of the French secret service sank this boat. They were acting on orders." [ 5 ]

Following the sinking, Greenpeace and the French Republic entered into an agreement to submit Greenpeace's claims against France to international arbitration. The arbitral tribunal, seated in Geneva, Switzerland, was composed of three members (Professor Claude Reymond, Sir Owen Woodhouse and Professor Francois Terre) and rendered an award in 1987 in favor of Greenpeace, ordering France to pay it some $8.1 million. David McTaggart. Greenpeace's chairman, described the award as "a great victory for those who support the right of peaceful protest and abhor the use of violence." [ 6 ] Greenpeace was represented by Lloyd Cutler and Gary Born of Wilmer Cutler & Pickering. [ 6 ]

The wreck of the Rainbow Warrior was refloated on 21 August 1985 and moved to a naval harbour for forensic examination. Although the hull had been recovered, the damage was too extensive for repair and the vessel was scuttled in Matauri Bay in the Cavalli Islands. New Zealand. on 12 December 1987, to serve as a dive wreck and artificial reef to promote marine life. [ 7 ] The hull is now covered with a large colony of vari-coloured sea anemones. [ 8 ] The masts were salvaged and now stand outside the Dargaville Museum. A second ship, named Rainbow Warrior after the first vessel, was acquired in 1989 and a third ship, also named Rainbow Warrior . built from scratch, was launched in October 2011.

Literature

A number of books have been written about both the history of Greenpeace and the genesis of the Rainbow Warrior. "A Bonfire in my Mouth: Life, Passion and the Rainbow Warrior" by Susi Newborn was published in 2003 and Rex Wyler's "Greenpeace: An Insider's Account. How a Group of Ecologists, Journalists and Visionaries Changed the World" in 2004. In 2014, Pete Wilkinson's book "From Deptford to Antarctica - The Long Way Home" was published.

A number of books have been published about the bombing of the Rainbow Warrior. including "Eyes of Fire: The Last Voyage of the Rainbow Warrior", produced the year after the sinking and written by shipboard author David Robie. [ 9 ]

In popular culture

There have been a number of internationally award-winning documentaries made about the Rainbow Warrior including "The Rainbow Warriors of Waiheke Island" (2009), "Departure and Return" (2006) and "The Women who Launched the Rainbow" (2005).

Several fictionalised films have also been made about the ship, including The Rainbow Warrior Conspiracy [ 10 ] (1989), The Rainbow Warrior (1992), and two French films Opération Rainbow Warrior [ 11 ] and Le Rainbow Warrior [ 12 ] (both 2006). The Steven Seagal -directed On Deadly Ground . an action film inspired by Greenpeace's activities, had the working title "Rainbow Warrior".

In addition, a number of musicians and bands have referenced the original Rainbow Warrior and the sinking, including the Danish/American band White Lion and their song Little Fighter. Belgian band Cobalt 60. the New Zealand band The Bats ("Green" on Silverbeet ), the Irish folk-rock singer Luka Bloom. the Faroese metal band Týr. and the Argentinian metal band Rata Blanca. Geffen Records released a double album, Greenpeace Rainbow Warriors. [ 13 ] in 1989 and included songs from artists such as U2. INXS. The Pretenders. Talking Heads. Peter Gabriel. and White Lion. German punk band Die Toten Hosen also referenced the sinking in their song "Walkampf ", although not by name.

"Anchor Me" is a 1994 single by New Zealand rock band The Mutton Birds which a charity supergroup of New Zealand artists recorded in 2005 to commemorate the 20th anniversary of the bombing of the Rainbow Warrior. The song peaked at #3 in the New Zealand singles chart.

References

Other articles

Rainbow Warrior (1978)

Rainbow Warrior (1978)

Rainbow Warrior (1978)

The "Rainbow Warrior " (sometimes unofficially "Rainbow Warrior I") was a former UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) trawler later purchased by the environmental pressure group Greenpeace. She was active in supporting a number of Greenpeace protest activities against seal hunting. whaling and nuclear weapons testing during the late 1970s and early 1980s. She was sunk whilst in harbour in New Zealand by operatives of the French intelligence service (DGSE) on 10 July 1985. killing one of the activists.

The "Rainbow Warrior" was built in 1955, in Aberdeen. Scotland as a trawler named "Sir William Hardy", and entered service with the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. She served until 1977 when she was put up for sale by the Ministry. She was acquired by Greenpeace at a cost of £40,000 and underwent a four month refit. She was re-launched on April 29 1978 as "Rainbow Warrior", the first ship to serve with Greenpeace. Further modifications followed, with the replacement of the engines in 1981 and the fitting of sails in a ketch rig in 1985.

In early 1985 "Rainbow Warrior" was in the Pacific campaigning against nuclear testing. At the beginning of the year she evacuated some Marshall Islanders who were living on an atoll polluted by radioactivity from past American nuclear tests at the Pacific Proving Grounds .

She travelled to New Zealand to lead a flotilla of yacht s protesting against French nuclear testing at the Mururoa Atoll in the Tuamotu Archipelago of French Polynesia. During previous nuclear tests at Mururoa, protest ships had been boarded by French commando s after sailing into the shipping exclusion zone around the atoll. For the 1985 tests Greenpeace intended to monitor the impact of nuclear tests and place protesters on the island to illegally monitor the blasts. The French Government infiltrated the Canada -based organisation and discovered these plans.

The "Rainbow Warrior", then captained by Peter Willcox. was sabotaged and sunk just before midnight NZST (1pm BST, 8am EDT) on July 10 1985 by two explosive devices attached to the hull by operatives of the French intelligence service (DGSE). One of the twelve people on board, photographer Fernando Pereira. returned to the ship after the first explosion to attempt to retrieve his equipment, and was killed when the ship was sunk by the second larger explosion.

A murder enquiry began and a number of the French agents were tracked and arrested. The revelations of French involvement caused a political scandal and the French minister of defence Charles Hernu resigned. The captured French agents were imprisoned, but later transferred to French custody and subsequently released. After facing international pressure France agreed to pay compensation to Greenpeace, and later admissions from the former head of the DGSE revealed that three teams had carried out the bombings. In addition to those successfully prosecuted, a two-man team had carried out the actual bombing but their identities have never been officially confirmed. [ [http://www.nzherald.co.nz/index.cfm?c_id=1&ObjectID=10333480 'Third team' in Rainbow Warrior plot - 02 Jul 2005 - NZ Herald: New Zealand National news ] ]

The wreck of the "Rainbow Warrior" was refloated on 21 August 1985 and moved to a naval harbour for forensic examination. Although the hull had been recovered the damage was too extensive for economic repair and the vessel was scuttled in Matauri Bay in the Cavalli Islands. New Zealand on 2 December 1987. to serve as a dive wreck and fish sanctuary. The move was seen as a fitting end for the vessel. Indeed, the hull is now covered with a large colony of vari-coloured sea anemones. [ [http://www.geocities.com/shipwrecks_magazine/rainbow.htm Bombing of the Rainbow Warrior ] ] The masts were salvaged and now stand outside the Dargaville Museum. A second ship, named "Rainbow Warrior" after the first vessel, was acquired in 1989.

"Rainbow Warrior" in the arts

Several fictionalized films have been made about the ship including " The Rainbow Warrior Conspiracy " (1989), "The Rainbow Warrior " (1992), and two French films " Operation Rainbow Warrior " and " Le Rainbow Warrior " (both 2006). In addition, a number of musicians and bands have referenced the original "Rainbow Warrior" and the sinking, including the Belgian band Cobalt 60. the New Zealand band The Bats and the Argentinian metal band Rata Blanca. Geffen Records released a double album, "Greenpeace Rainbow Warriors", in 1989 and included songs from artists such as U2. INXS. The Pretenders. Talking Heads. Peter Gabriel. and White Lion .Swedish band Europe also had made a demo called 'Rainbow Warrior' on their 'Le Baron Boys' release, though whether it refers to the ship or not is unknown. A number of books have also been written, including "Eyes of Fire: The Last Voyage of the Rainbow Warrior", produced the year after the sinking and written by shipboard author David Robie. [ [http://www.southpacificbooks.co.nz/robie.asp South Pacific Books ] ]

* [http://www.greenpeace.org/international/about/ships/the-rainbow-warrior Official Greenpeace page on the Rainbow Warrior ]
* [http://www.rainbow-warrior.org.nz New Zealand website on the Rainbow Warrior ]
* [http://www.greenpeace.org.au/rainbow_warrior/index.html Australian Greenpeace website on the Rainbow Warrior ]
* [http://www.greenpeace.org/international/rainbow-warrior-bombing/ 20th anniversary of the bombing of the Rainbow Warrior (on Greenpeace site) ]
* [http://www.greenpeace.org/international/rainbow-warrior-bombing/rw-then-and-now Specifications of the Rainbow Warrior (on Greenpeace site) ]
* [http://www.kauricoast.co.nz/Feature.cfm?WPID=70 "The Rainbow Warrior Affair" ]
* [http://www.police.govt.nz/operation/wharf/ New Zealand police report on "Operation Wharf", the Rainbow Warrior homicide inquiry ]
* [http://www.guardian.co.uk/g2/story/0,,1529039,00.html "Felling of a Warrior" ]. 15 July 2005, " The Guardian " - article on 20th anniversary of Rainbow Warrior bombing including updates on further developments in the case.
* [http://politics.guardian.co.uk/foi/story/0,9061,1554612,00.html "How Rainbow Warrior was played down" ]. 23 August 2005, "The Guardian".
* [http://www.asiapac.org.fj/PJR/issues/back95/95rainbow.html "A photographer's date with a nuclear death" ]. " Pacific Journalism Review ", 2(1), November, 1995 - A reflective article 10 years after the bombing.

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Look at other dictionaries:

Rainbow Warrior — Para otros usos de este término, véase Rainbow Warrior (desambiguación). Rainbow Warrior (1978 1985) Sir William Hardy (1955 1977) Perfil del Rainbow Warrior I Banderas … Wikipedia Español

Rainbow Warrior I — Rainbow Warrior Seitenaufriss der Rainbow Warrior p1 … Deutsch Wikipedia

Rainbow Warrior I — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Rainbow Warrior. Le Rainbow Warrior de 1978 Le premier Rainbow Warrior était un navire de l ONG écologiste Greenpeace. Il a été utilis … Wikipédia en Français

Rainbow Warrior — Two ships of the environmental pressure group Greenpeace have borne the name Rainbow Warrior. The term itself comes from the book Warriors of the Rainbow by William Willoya and Vinson Brown.* Rainbow Warrior was a former trawler previously in… … Wikipedia

Rainbow Warrior — El Rainbow Warrior (Guerrero del Arcoiris) era el barco insignia de la organización no gubernamental internacional Greenpeace. Fue construido en Aberdeen en 1955 e inicialmente utilizado por el ministerio de agricultura británico como barco de… … Enciclopedia Universal

Rainbow Warrior — /reɪnboʊ ˈwɒriə/ (say raynboh woreeuh) noun 1. a ship owned by Greenpeace which from 1978 took part in several protest activities, such as campaigns against whaling, sealing, and nuclear testing; sunk in Auckland Harbour, NZ, in 1985 by French… … Australian English dictionary

Rainbow — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Sur les autres projets Wikimedia : « Rainbow », sur le Wiktionnaire (dictionnaire universel) Rainbow, signifiant arc en ciel en anglais,… … Wikipédia en Français

1978 in music — Events*January. May The Bee Gees dominate the singles and album charts as Saturday Night Fever becomes a cultural phenomenon. At one point, the album was selling 1 million copies per week. *January 14 The Sex Pistols played their final show… … Wikipedia

Rainbow Warrior (1955) - The Full Wiki

Rainbow Warrior (1955): Wikis

12 knots (engines)
5-7 knots (sail) [ 1 ]

For other ships of the same name, see Rainbow Warrior .

The Rainbow Warrior (sometimes unofficially Rainbow Warrior I ) was a former UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) trawler later purchased by the environmental organisation Greenpeace. The ship was active in supporting a number of Greenpeace protest activities against seal hunting. whaling and nuclear weapons testing during the late 1970s and early 1980s. She was sunk whilst in harbour in New Zealand by operatives of the French intelligence service (DGSE ) on 10 July 1985, killing one of the activists.

Contents Early career

The Rainbow Warrior was built in 1955, in Aberdeen. Scotland as a trawler named Sir William Hardy. and entered service with the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. She served until 1977 when she was put up for sale by the Ministry. She was acquired by Greenpeace at a cost of £40,000 and underwent a four month refit. She was re-launched on April 29, 1978 as Rainbow Warrior. the first ship to serve with Greenpeace. Further modifications followed, with the replacement of the engines in 1981 and the fitting of sails in a ketch rig in 1985.

With Greenpeace

In early 1985 Rainbow Warrior was in the Pacific campaigning against nuclear testing. In May, she evacuated some 300 Marshall Islanders from Rongelap Atoll. polluted by radioactivity from past American nuclear tests at the Pacific Proving Grounds. [ 2 ]

She travelled to New Zealand to lead a flotilla of yachts protesting against French nuclear testing at the Mururoa Atoll in the Tuamotu Archipelago of French Polynesia. During previous nuclear tests at Mururoa, protest ships had been boarded by French commandos after sailing into the shipping exclusion zone around the atoll. For the 1985 tests Greenpeace intended to monitor the impact of nuclear tests and place protesters on the island to illegally monitor the blasts. The French Government infiltrated the Canada -based organisation and discovered these plans.

The Bombing

Memorial to the Rainbow Warrior at Matauri Bay. Northland

The Rainbow Warrior. then captained by Peter Willcox. was sabotaged and sunk just before midnight NZST (1pm BST, 8am EDT) on July 10, 1985 by two explosive devices attached to the hull by operatives of the French intelligence service (DGSE ). One of the twelve people on board, photographer Fernando Pereira. returned to the ship after the first explosion to attempt to retrieve his equipment, and was killed when the ship was sunk by the second larger explosion.

A murder enquiry began and a number of the French agents were tracked and arrested. The revelations of French involvement caused a political scandal and the French minister of defence Charles Hernu resigned. The captured French agents were imprisoned, but later transferred to French custody. They were confined to the French military base on the Island of Hao for a brief period before being released. After facing international pressure France agreed to pay compensation to Greenpeace, and later admissions from the former head of the DGSE revealed that three teams had carried out the bombings. In addition to those successfully prosecuted, a two-man team had carried out the actual bombing but their identities have never been officially confirmed. [ 3 ] 22 September 1985, the French Prime Minister Laurent Fabius summoned journalists to his office to read a 200 word statement in which he said: "The truth is cruel," and acknowledged there had been a cover-up, he went on to say that "Agents of the French secret service sank this boat. They were acting on orders." [ 4 ]

The wreck of the Rainbow Warrior was refloated on 21 August 1985 and moved to a naval harbour for forensic examination. Although the hull had been recovered the damage was too extensive for economic repair and the vessel was scuttled in Matauri Bay in the Cavalli Islands. New Zealand on 2 December 1987, to serve as a dive wreck and artificial reef to promote marine life. The hull is now covered with a large colony of vari-coloured sea anemones. [ 5 ] The masts were salvaged and now stand outside the Dargaville Museum. A second ship, named Rainbow Warrior after the first vessel, was acquired in 1989.

In popular culture

Several fictionalised films have been made about the ship including The Rainbow Warrior Conspiracy (1989), The Rainbow Warrior (1992), and two French films Operation Rainbow Warrior and Le Rainbow Warrior (both 2006).

In addition, a number of musicians and bands have referenced the original Rainbow Warrior and the sinking, including the Belgian band Cobalt 60. the New Zealand band The Bats. the Faroese metal band Týr. and the Argentinian metal band Rata Blanca. Geffen Records released a double album, Greenpeace Rainbow Warriors. in 1989 and included songs from artists such as U2. INXS. The Pretenders. Talking Heads. Peter Gabriel. and White Lion. Swedish band Europe also had made a demo called 'Rainbow Warrior' on their 'Le Baron Boys' release, though whether it refers to the ship or not is unknown. German punk band Die Toten Hosen also referenced the sinking in their song "Walkampf ", although not by name.

A number of books have also been written, including Eyes of Fire: The Last Voyage of the Rainbow Warrior. produced the year after the sinking and written by shipboard author David Robie. [ 6 ]

References External links

Photograph: Miller/AP Margaret Thatcher refused to sanction official criticism of the French over the blowing up of the British-registered Greenpeace ship RainbowWarrior even after Paris had admitted being behind the bombing, newly released documents show.

French secret agents blew up the RainbowWarrior to prevent Greenpeace protesting against the testing of nuclear weapons at Mururoa in the South Pacific.


http://politics.guardian.co.uk/foi/story/0,9061,1554612,00.html ">"How Rainbow Warrior was played down" - How Rainbow Warrior was played down | Politics | The Guardian

Rainbow Warrior

Rainbow Warrior Contents [edit ] The first Rainbow Warrior

The first Rainbow Warrior. a craft of 40 metres and 418 tonnes, was originally the MAFF trawler Sir William Hardy . launched in 1955. She was acquired for £40,000 and was renovated over four months, then re-launched on April 29 1978 as Rainbow Warrior. She was named after a Native American prophecy that stated "When the world is sick and dying, the people will rise up like Warriors of the Rainbow. ". The engines were replaced in 1981 and the ship was converted with a ketch rig in 1985.

Rainbow Warrior was used as a support vessel for many Greenpeace protest activities against seal hunting. whaling and nuclear weapons testing during the late 1970s and early 1980s.

In early 1985 she was in the Pacific campaigning against nuclear testing. At the beginning of the year she evacuated some Marshall Islanders who were living on an atoll polluted by radioactivity from past American nuclear tests at the Pacific Proving Grounds.

She travelled to New Zealand to lead a flotilla of yachts protesting against French nuclear testing at Mururoa Atoll in the Tuamotu Archipelago of French Polynesia. During previous nuclear tests at Mururoa, protest ships had been boarded by French commandos after "trespassing" into the shipping exclusion zone around the atoll. For the 1985 tests Greenpeace intended to monitor the impact of nuclear tests and place protesters on the island to do some monitoring, in violation of the law. The French Government infiltrated the Canada -based organisation and discovered these plans.

[edit ] The bombing

The Rainbow Warrior. then captained by Peter Willcox. was sabotaged and sunk just before midnight NZST (1pm BST, 8am EDT) on July 10 1985 by two explosive devices attached to the hull by operatives of French intelligence (DGSE ). Of the twelve people on board, one, photographer Fernando Pereira. drowned when he attempted to retrieve his equipment.

The New Zealand Police immediately initiated a murder inquiry into the sinking. With the assistance of the New Zealand public and an intense media focus the police quickly established the movements of all of the bombers. On July 12 two of the six bombers, posing as Swiss tourists and carrying Swiss Passports, who had operated under orders were found and arrested. At trial they pleaded guilty to manslaughter and were eventually sentenced to a maximum of 10 years imprisonment. Most of the others were identified and three were interviewed by the New Zealand Police on Norfolk Island to where they had escaped in the yacht Ouvea. They were not arrested due to lack of evidence that would satisfy the Australian authorities. Ouvea subsequently sailed, ostensibly for Nouméa. but was scuttled en route with the personnel transfering to a French naval vessel. Most of the terrorists remained in French government service.

In September 1985 the French minister of defense Charles Hernu resigned and prime minister Laurent Fabius admitted, on television, that agents of the French secret service had sunk the boat on orders.

After the conviction and imprisonment of the two French agents France threatened to block New Zealand exports to the European Economic Community (EU) unless the two were released. In June 1986, in a political deal with the then Prime Minister of New Zealand David Lange and presided over by the United Nations Secretary-General. Javier Pérez de Cuéllar. France agreed to pay compensation of NZ$13 million (USD $6.5 million) to New Zealand and 'apologise', in return for which Alain Mafart and Dominique Prieur would be detained at the French military base on Hao atoll for three years. However, the two spies had both returned to France by May 1988, after less than two years on the atoll. Mafart having ostensibly travelled to France for medical treatment (without returning at the conclusion at the treatment) and Prieur having become pregnant after her husband had been allowed to join her.

In 1987, under heavy international pressure, the French government paid $8.16 million compensation to Greenpeace. In 2005 Admiral Pierre Lacoste. head of DGSE at the time, admitted that the death weighed heavily on his conscience and said that the aim of the operation had not been to kill. He acknowledged the existence of three teams: the crew of the yacht, reconnaissance and logistics (those successfully prosecuted), plus a two-man team that carried out the actual bombing and whose identities have never been officially confirmed [1].

In September 2006 the French newspaper Le Parisien identified Gérard Royal. brother to Ségolène Royal the leading Socialist presidential candidate, as being the person who actually planted the limpet mines. On the twentieth anniversary of the sinking it was also revealed that the French president François Mitterrand. himself, had given authorisation for the bombing.[2].

Also, in 2005 following release of UK government papers, it was confirmed that the French government tried to use French media to imply that the UK 's MI6 was involved in the sinking of the Rainbow Warrior [3].

Rainbow Warrior was refloated on 21 August 1985 and moved to a naval harbour for forensic examination. Although the hull had been recovered the damage was too extensive for economic repair and the vessel was scuttled in Matauri Bay in the Cavalli Islands. New Zealand on 2 December 1987. to serve as a dive wreck and fish sanctuary. The move was seen as a fitting end for the vessel. Indeed, the hull is now covered with a large colony of vari-coloured sea anemones.[4]

The original masts of the Rainbow Warrior currently stand outside the Dargaville Museum.

[edit ] Rainbow Warrior in the arts
  • The band Tiger Lillies wrote a song, Bumhole. about French nuclear testing in Polynesia and explosion of the Rainbow Warrior.
  • The song 'Rainbow Warrior' is sung by 1980s hard rock band Europe.
  • The first Rainbow Warrior is commemorated in a song, also called Rainbow Warrior. by Cobalt 60 on their album "Twelve", released in 1998.
  • New Zealand artist Don McGlashan wrote a song called Anchor Me in the mid-1980s, possibly influenced by the Rainbow Warrior bombing. In July 2005, some artists on the current music scene collaborated to remake the song to commemorate the bombing.
  • New Zealand band The Bats have a song called Green about Greenpeace and the bombing of the Rainbow Warrior on their 1993 album Silver Beet.
  • The glam metal band White Lion 's album Big Game included a track named "Little Fighter " (music video here ) about the sinking of the Rainbow Warrior.
  • Argentinean metal band Rata Blanca wrote a song to honour the ship called Guerrero del Arco Iris which is the translation to Spanish of the ship's name.
  • In a story arc of the comic strip Bloom County the penguin Opus. on a quest to find his mother, mistakes the Rainbow Warrior for a cruise ship to Antarctica.
  • Blood on their Banner: Nationalist Struggles in the South Pacific (1989), by Pacific author David Robie. has several chapters about the Rainbow Warrior and French military strategies in the region from an indigenous Pacific independence struggles perspective. [5]
  • An updated memorial edition of the 1986 book Eyes of Fire: The Last Voyage of the Rainbow Warrior. by shipboard author David Robie. reporting in text, photographs and cartoons on the final nuclear-free mission to Rongelap and Moruroa Atoll, was published in July 2005. [6]
  • Geffen Records released a double album, Greenpeace Rainbow Warriors. in 1989 and included songs from various noteworthy artists such as U2. INXS. The Pretenders. Talking Heads. and Peter Gabriel.
  • German speedfolk band Fiddler's Green has a song Raindow Warrior. devoted to the ship's history, on their 1995 album King Shepherd
  • Dominion of the Sword by British folk singer Martin Carthy. From album Right of Passage.
  • Faroese folk metal band Týr mythicized the ships' history in Rainbow Warrior on the album Eric the Red (2003).
[edit ] The current Rainbow Warrior

The current Rainbow Warrior is a three-masted schooner (sailing ship ) that was built from the hull of the deep sea fishing ship Grampian Fame . Built in Yorkshire and launched in 1957 she was originally 44 metres long and powered by steam. She was extended to 55.2 m in 1966. Greenpeace gave the vessel new masts, a gaff rig. new engine and a number of environmentally low-impact systems to handle waste, heating and hot water. She was officially launched in Hamburg on July 10 1989. the fourth anniversary of the sinking of her predecessor.

[edit ] The name

The name Rainbow Warrior comes from the book Warriors of the Rainbow by William Willoya and Vinson Brown, (1962, Naturegraph Publishers). According to The Greenpeace Story (Prentice Hall) Greenpeace plankholder Bob Hunter found a copy of the Warriors of the Rainbow and first read it 1971 during a voyage on rough seas of the North Pacific where the name Greenpeace was also conceived. The book describes what the authors say are Hopi prophecies of warriors who would be mankind's key to survival. The legend says these warriors would appear at a dark time when the fish would die in the streams, the birds would fall from the air, the waters would be blackened, and the trees would no longer be; mankind as we know it would all but cease to exist. Widely repeated accounts of the legend recorded in the Naturegraph book say "They will be called The Warriors of the Rainbow, Protectors of the Environment." Other accounts attribute the legend to a Cree woman, as told by a non-enrolled Oklahoma woman who says she is of Cherokee heritage.[7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12]

[edit ] See also [edit ] External links

RAINBOW WARRIOR ESSAY - College Essay - 1427 Words

RAINBOW WARRIOR ESSAY

The bombing of the Rainbow Warrior was an historical event in New Zealand that occurred on July 10th 1985 at Auckland’s Waitemata Harbour when French secret service agents planted two bombs on the hull of Greenpeace’s flagship, the Rainbow Warrior which sunk the flagship killing one crew member. It was caused by the French bombing Greenpeace’s flagship because of Greenpeace’s decision to protest against the French testing nuclear weapons in Maurora and by New Zealand’s unpopular position on the nuclear issue. This led to a number of consequences including the death of a fellow crew member, It led to the French government having to pay $13 million compensation and their two agents being arrested. New Zealand did not feel that she received support from other Western countries and eventually New Zealand adapted a nuclear-free policy as well as Greenpeace also gaining a significant increase in its membership base.

On the days leading up to the event, the two French secret service agents, Marfart and Preiur had entered New Zealand using bogus passports. After receiving further details about the vessel and Greenpeace’s plan from an agent. They made arrangements to attach two bombs to the hull of the ship. This was carried out on the 10th of July 1985 at 8pm. The first bomb went off at 11:38pm and the second at 11:45pm. One crew member was killed, Fernando Pereira was killed when he went to retrieve his camera after the first bomb, the second bomb went off and he drowned. New Zealand police initially believed this was a domestic criminal act. However acting on information received from members of the public they became aware of possible international connection. Two people with French accents who had been observed acting suspiciously near the wharf. Within a matter of days they had been located and taken in for questioning. It later became apparent that their Swiss passports were fake. Later these two agents were identified at DGSE agents, Allain Mafart and.

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The Bombing of the Rainbow Warrior

The Bombing of the Rainbow Warrior

In early 1985 the Rainbow Warrior had never looked better. It had a fresh coat of paint, a new radio and radar, and a complete engine overhaul. The crew remarked on how well the ship sailed. The ship was in Auckland, New Zealand, preparing to visit Moruroa Atoll for a major campaign against French nuclear testing. But the voyage was not to be.

At the time, a French volunteer known as Frederique Bonlieu was helping out in the Greenpeace office in Auckland. But Bonlieu was in fact Christine Cabon, a French secret service agent. In the office, she folded letters, sealed envelopes and sorted address labels. In secret, she monitored communication from the Rainbow Warrior, collected maps and investigated underwater equipment. Her mission was to lay the groundwork for French saboteurs who were coming to sink the Rainbow Warrior.

The French wanted to stop Greenpeace's plans for a peaceful protest against nuclear testing. They were particularly concerned about Polynesians launching outrigger canoes from the Rainbow Warrior. Polynesia is a French territory and the French feared any hint of independence.

The first bomb exploded at 11.38pm, lifting those in the mess off their seats. Davy Edwards rushed into the engine room to find a hole the size of a car, water pouring in. Everyone was ordered off the ship but some went back to grab possessions. Fernando Pereira, the ship's photographer, was one of them, perhaps going after his precious cameras. There was a second explosion and, caught in a rush of water, Pereira drowned.

The crew were in shock. They gave statements to the New Zealand police, who reacted swiftly to the first act of terrorism on their soil. Piecing together statements from members of the public, they were soon questioning a French couple, agents Prieur and Mafart of the French secret service.

Initially, the French government denied all knowledge but it soon became obvious that they were involved. Soon French Prime Minister Fabius appeared on television to tell a shocked world, "Agents of the DGSE (Secret Service) sank this boat. They acted on orders." The French minister of defense resigned.

Six weeks later in New Zealand, the preliminary hearing in the trial of agents Prieur and Mafart began in Auckland. It was expected to last for weeks but a deal was struck before the agents entered the courtroom. In just 34 minutes, they pleaded guilty to charges of manslaughter and willful damage, attracting sentences of 10 and 7 years to be served concurrently. A UN negotiated settlement meant that the two agents were transferred to Hao atoll, a French military base in French Polynesia to serve their time. They were each released in less than two years.

Who was responsible?

Two divers, who were part of a large French Secret Service team, planted the bombs beneath the Rainbow Warrior. At first the French denied any involvement but, as the evidence mounted, they later admitted to planning the entire campaign. Only two French agents ever served time in prison. Many others simply disappeared.

Christine Cabon (alias Frederique Bonlieu Cabon)

Cabon joined the French army in 1977, and was later transferred to the intelligence gathering and evaluation wing of the Direction Generale de la Securite Exterieure (DGSE - French Secret Service). She infiltrated the Greenpeace New Zealand office in April 1985 to uncover plans for the Greenpeace Moruroa trip and gathered directions, maps, and information for the Ouvea crew and the Turenges. She left New Zealand on May 24 1985; at the time of the bombing she was in Israel. The same day the Auckland police asked the Israeli authorities to arrest her, she was warned off by the DGSE and was able to leave Israel before Israeli authorities arrested her. She has since disappeared.

The three Ouvea crew are believed to have smuggled explosives, an inflatable and an outboard motor into New Zealand. It is possible but unlikely that one of them actually placed the bombs.

Petty Officer Bartelo, alias Jean-Michel Berthelot

It is believed that around 8.30pm, 10 July, 1985, Jean-Michel Bartelo put on his scuba gear and slipped beneath the water, heading for the Rainbow Warrior. Two packets of plastic-wrapped explosives were attached to the ship, one by the propeller, the other to the outer wall of the engine room. Many of the crew had left the ship to go for a drink but several remained, relaxing in the mess. Bartelo was a combat frogman. His whereabouts since the bombing are unknown.

Dr Xavier Maniguet

Maniguet was a doctor specializing in treating diving accident victims. He claimed only to have been a passenger on board the Ouvea. He was living in Dieppe, Normandy (France) in 1985. He later wrote a book, The Jaws Of Death (Shark As Predator, Man As Prey), which included reference to his role in the Rainbow Warrior bombing.

Chief Petty Officer Roland Verge, (alias Raymond Velche)

Skipper of the Ouvea, Velche was a combat frogman who joined the French army in 1970 and was later seconded to the DGSE. He was based at the Navy Frogmen Training Centre (CINC) at Aspretto in Corsica, which was closed in 1986.

Petty Officer Gerald Adries (aliases Eric Audrenc, Eric Andreine)

Andries was a combat frogman. He brought the inflatable and the outboard motorused in the bombing from London. Six years after the bombing, he was arrested in Basel, Switzerland, but New Zealand informed Swiss authorities they would not seek his extradition.

Major Alain Mafart (alias Alain Turenge)

A member of the French Secret Service, Mafart supported the sabotage team and was arrested by New Zealand police when returning a rental van. He pleaded guilty to manslaughter and was sentenced to 10 years' imprisonment. Later he was deported to Hao in French Polynesia and served three years. He returned to Paris and is now a colonel.

Captain Dominique Prieur (alias Sophie Turenge)

Prieur was a specialist in European peace movements. After her arrest by New Zealand police, she received the same sentence as Mafart. Her husband was allowed to join her in Hao and she became pregnant, returning to Paris in 1988. She is now a commandant.

Colonel Louis Piere Dillais (alias Jean Louis Dormand)

Dillais was the chief of the Rainbow Warrior bombing operation. He reportedly drove the inflatable for the two divers. He is now in charge of military intelligence in France.

Colonel Jean-Claude Lesquer

A colonel in 1985, Lesquer was head of the action unit charged with the bombing. He lost his post over the scandal but was later promoted to brigadier-general after the Gulf War. In February, 1995, he was promoted to major-general.

Death of a crew member

Fernando Pereira was a Dutch photographer, originally from Portugal. He drowned on 10 July 1985, when two explosions ripped through the hull of the Rainbow Warrior. The rest of the crew managed to flee to safety.

Pereira had just celebrated his 35th birthday in Rongelap Atoll in the Marshall Islands with the crew of the Rainbow Warrior. He was planning to go to Moruroa to bring photographs of French nuclear testing to the world. Tragically, his peaceful intention became the cause of his death.

A New Zealand court found two members of the French secret service guilty of manslaughter. Although they were sentenced to 10 years in jail, both were free within two years. One was smuggled out of Tahiti under a false identity.

Justice has never fully been served for Fernando Pereira but his memory continues to inspire those aboard the Rainbow Warrior who fight for a cleaner world.

What happened to the Rainbow Warrior?

After the bombing, the Rainbow Warrior was given a final resting place at Matauri Bay, in New Zealand's Cavalli Islands. It has become a living reef, attracting marine life and recreational divers.

The idea was first proposed by the New Zealand Underwater Association. It seemed a fitting end for a ship that had spent its time protecting the marine environment.

It was towed north with a patched hull on 2 December 1987. Ten days later, a crowd of well-wishers looked on as it was given a traditional Maori burial.

Now home to a complex ecosystem, the Rainbow Warrior has become a popular dive destination. The local Maori community maintains its kaitaki (conservation). In a few short years, the Rainbow Warrior became an integral part of the environment it helped protect.