A branch of the army which the women could join, the Women’s Auxiliary Corps (see 2.2), did not fight at the front line with the men, but rather allowed women to serve behind the line, driving trucks, ambulances and doing administrative and supply work which helped to free up more men, so that they could fight on the front line. Their slogan, “the girl behind the man behind the gun” shows a more conventional idea of the female role in society as the supporter, but this work was previously not fit for a woman.
This new freedom also had a newfound and widely accepted social status which began to alter other areas of life, such as fashion- this, liberated women to be granted status near equal to men, as restrictive and impractical fashion made room for shorter skirts and hair, and the adoption of the brassiere as a substitute to the corset, as physical and social freedom are both of great importance.
Women also played an important role in keeping up the morale of the men on the front line. Letters filled with news of home and the familiar would help provide the soldiers with the comfort they needed after fighting on the front for days on end.
This new status was seen after the war as well as during it. Women over 30 years of age were given the right to vote in 1918, and in 1924 were given the vote from the age of2l, equal to the men. This was a move to acknowledge the status of women in British society, and in turn the move of the government was followed by a workplace move which saw more women stay in the workforce, as well as be able to enter a broader range of employment
The standing of women was significantly reformed and what women believed they could do and achieve / expanded to new horizons. In short, WWI did for the status of women what years of / suffrage could not, giving them a broader range of experiences during this period.
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Every event has its consequences and nothing happens accidentally- there is no doubt about it. It does not matter if the event touches just one personal life or the whole world. We talk about important but also about insignificant events. Some consequences appear immediately but people can meet some of them many years later. Especially the huge events such as the First World War and the Second World War have affected the economic, personal, social and political life of millions of people on our planet.
One of the most cruel consequences of the war are millions dead people and soldiers in captivity. 750 000 British people died in WW1. Great Britain had in the WW1 192 000 prisoners. The humanitarian organisation, Red Cross, took care of food-supply and return of the imprisoned soldiers.
The political affect of WW1 was the new dividing of the world. Where before the WW1 there had been 19 monarchies and 3 republics in Europe, by 1922 there were 14 republics, 13 monarchies and 2 regencies (Albania, Hungary). Although Britain stayed a monarchy the war enthroned changes.
The cost of the war had led to an enormous increase in taxation, from 6% of income in 1914 to 25% in 1918. The demands of the war had also led to a doubling in the size of the civil service, and greater government control of national life.
The European victors were left owning their former ally an aggregate of $10 billion, when the exchanges were freed in 1919, the British pound dropped by one fifth in value as compared with the dollar, while the franc fell by 50%.
Immediately after the end of World War II, Britain underwent enormous social change. The country was bankrupted after the war. The new Labour government provided the reformation of the main institutions such as mining, railways, road traffic, air traffic, petrol, electricity and even the Bank of England.
The WW2 lasted longer than the WW1, and although less than half as many British troops had died this time, the lost of 303 000 soldiers an 60 000 civilians in air raids was a very heavy price to pay for the mistakes of the inter-war years.
Britain had lost its major position of power. At the end of the war Britain had to face a financial failure. In implication of their war endeavour they incured debt in the value of $14 billion. This occurred devaluation of the pound and shortness of viand. Thanks to the US Marshall Aid Program, Britain was able to recover quickly from the war. Wages were about 30% higher than in 1939 and prices had hardly risen at all.
Before the war it was quite common among the people who belonged to the upper class that they had butlers and maids. But after 1945, women from the middle class were taking care of their households by themselves and there was a lack of maids because the servants can hardly find a job. Some of them fought in the war and sometimes there had no place to came back. During the war, some houses became temporary hospital for injured people and there were no jobs for servants. After the war, old families had not enough money to keep their mansions and that’s why they rented or sold them to museums, galleries or to people who became rich after the war.
Before the war it was usual that all the family had a dinner together. But the post-war trend was that people became more separate from one another. This led to the fact that family members were getting more isolated and the old strong family structures became less tied. The consequence of this situation was that children’s freedom was more tolerated and accepted by their parents.
The wars had undoubtedly the impact on human relations. Many men died in the war sour came back with injuries. These were not able to work like the healthy ones and it did not bring so much satisfaction into families.
The wars have influenced society, economics and minds of people not in Britain but all around the world. The life after the war was completely different from the one before the wars. People were experienced from the first war but the second one was much more cruel and it has a bad impact on generations. The eyewitnesses still remember the terror and they are able to hand over the terrible experiences.
How much and in what ways were women�s lives affected by World War I?
It�s up to you how you plan and organize this essay, but you might want to consider including the following:
� Women and families (bringing up children on their own, making do with rationing, high prices and so on)
� Women supporting the war (encouraging men to go and fight and so on)
� Women and bereavement (loss of husbands, sons etc)
� Women and the world of work (going to work in factories, as nurses, and so on)
� Women after the war in 1918 � how had their lives changed?
Remember � you CAN�T include everything. You may prefer to focus on one area, or you may prefer to try and do a little on a wide range of factors. It�s not all about Vera Brittain either! She�s just one example.
DO NOT COPY AND PASTE SECTIONS OF TEXT FROM WEBSITES � you MUST use your own words. At GCSE and A-level, copying and pasting results in candidates� work being disqualified. If you copy and paste sections of text from websites in this essay your work will not be marked.
These are some suggested links. But there will be plenty more � you should also do your own research:
Women and recruitment � how were women used to recruit soldiers?
Women in propaganda posters � how were women targeted by the government? Look at these posters for some ideas.
Women and political rights � before the war women had no right to vote. In 1919 a new law granting women over 30 the right to vote came into force in Britain. See also here
Women and jobs � the sorts of jobs women went into
Women at work during and after the war � women�s lives might have changed during the war, but were those changes permanent?
Women's poetry � this shows how women reacted to the whole experience, such as grief
Women after WW1 � women might now find they were more accepted in the working world, but it seems married women were not so easily accepted.
Date Submitted: 03/21/2013 01:45 PM Flesch-Kincaid Score: 60 Words: 420 Essay Grade: no grades Flag
About the war
World War 1 was an extremely bloody war, with huge losses of life and little ground lost or won. Fought mostly by soldiers in trenches, World War 1 saw an estimated 10 million military deaths.
world war 1 came with its many problems and issues, Medical symptoms became a big problem. Millions of men who suffered psychological trauma as a result of their war experiences; Symptoms ranged from unmanageable diarrhoea to unrelenting anxiety. Soldiers who had bayoneted men in the face developed hysterical tics of their own facial muscles. Snipers lost their sight and Terrifying nightmares of being unable to withdraw bayonets from the enemies' bodies persisted long after the carnage.
World War One was to give women the opportunity to show a male-dominated society that they could do more than simply bring up children and tend a home. In World War One, women played a vital role in keeping soldiers equipped with ammunition and in many senses they kept the nation moving through their help in manning the transport system.
The years of WW1 saw a spread of women’s rights and female suffrage all over the world. Women at this time were treated differently from men, at least in voting rights. Especially, back then, women were considered to be inferior to men.
With so many men away fighting, someone had to bring in the harvests and keep the farms going. Therefore everyone had to become self-sufficient in food. The Women's Land Army played a vital part in this especially after 1916 when the Battle of the Somme killed and wounded so many young British soldiers. Before the war working class women worked mostly as maids and in factories. Middle class women were usually receptionists, teachers and nurses. Upper class women did not need to work because they were already in the upper class. During the war, lower class women.
Express your owns thoughts and ideas on this essay by writing a grade and/or critique.
Citation: C N Trueman "World War One and Women"
historylearningsite.co.uk. The History Learning Site, 17 Mar 2015. 19 Jul 2016.
World War One played a significant part in developing women’s political rights – so it is frequently assumed. However, World War One may well have stymied the drive by women to gain political rights or its part may have been overstated.
On June 19th 1917, the House of Commons voted by 385 to 55 to accept the Representation of the People Bill’s women’s suffrage clause. Suffragists were astonished by the margin of support given to them by the still all-male Commons. There had been no guarantee that the bill would be passed, as government whips were not used in the vote. To try to ensure that the bill was passed, Suffragists were encouraged to contact their MP’s to support the bill. On the day that the vote was taken in the House of Commons, members of the NUWSS made sure that known supporters of the bill did not leave the House until the vote had been taken. Clearly, the strategies used by the Suffragists were important when the size of the support given to the bill is taken into account. The huge majority of 330 was to play an important part when it came to the bill moving to the House of Lords.
Why did women get the vote?
It is generally assumed that the House of Commons was in favour of supporting the bill, as they were very appreciative of the work done by women in the First World War. The work done by women during the war was vital but its importance to the passing of the bill may have been overstated. Historians such as Martin Pugh believe that the vote in favour of female suffrage was simply a continuation of the way the issue had been moving before the war had started in 1914.
In 1911 there had been a similar vote to the one in 1917. Of the 194 MP’s who voted for the bills in both 1911 and 1917, only 22 had changed their stance: 14 had changed to being in favour of female suffrage and 4 changed from being for female suffrage in 1911 to being against it in 1917. This leaves a difference of only 14 – a long way off of the 330 majority of 1917.
Therefore, it seems likely that the direction Parliament seemed to be moving in before August 1914 was a significant factor in the 1918 Representation of the People Act. The activities of the Suffragists andSuffragettes pre-1914, therefore, may well have been more important at a political level than the work done by women in the war. As an example, in France, women did important war work in industry and agriculture, but they did not get any form of political suffrage after the war. However, in France there was no history of a women’s movement for political rights before the war.
It is also possible that Parliament was very conscious of the fact that the militancy pre-1914 might return after the war had ended in 1918. What would be the public reaction to the arrest of women who had done important work for the nation during the war simply for wanting political rights after it? Would those women who had not supported the Suffragettes or Suffragists before the war, be driven into their corner after 1918 if Parliament did not recognise the importance of political rights for women? Along with this was the fear of social and political upheaval as seen in Russia with the overthrow of the tsar in February 1917 followed by the Bolshevik take-over of Russia in October 1917. Could Parliament even vaguely risk such unrest in Britain?
Therefore, while the work of women in the war should not be understated (if only that it got some men on their side), other reasons are also important in explaining why the 1918 Act was passed. A continuation of the way things were going pre-1914 is an important factor as was the fear of social and political unrest in the aftermath of what had happened in Russia.
Ironically, while the war is credited by some as being the factor in pushing Parliament to introducing the 1918 Act, it may well have hindered the progress of female suffrage.
From 1910 to 1913, two issues dominated British politics: the clash between the Lords and the House of Commons and the continuing rise of militancy by the Suffragettes. The death of Emily Wilding Davison at theDerby in 1913 seemed to many to show that the very fabric of society was at risk as this was seen as a direct attack on the royal family. With churches and politicians attacked, a bomb being placed in Westminster Abbey etc. many feared that the violence of the Suffragettes would get worse.
Alongside this, however, was the work done by the Suffragists. They did not approve of the violence that was seemingly commonplace in Britain then. Movements such as the NUWSS and the ELFS had won support among a large number of MP’s who supported their stance. Famous MP’s such as Sir John Simon and David Lloyd George seemed to offer their support. The Prime Minister, Herbert Asquith, had met members of the NUWSS and the ELFS. There seems to have been a climate developing post –1910 that was reasonably positive towards the Suffragists, if not the Suffragettes. It is possible that there would have been some form of female political representation before it actually happened in 1918, but the war took over. However, there had been seemingly positive negotiations between the Suffragists and the government before which had come to nothing.
All the government’s and country’s efforts were absorbed by the war. Emmeline Pankhust told her supporters to support the war effort and the violence of the Suffragettes disappeared.
Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points were almost entirely ignored by the citizens and politicians of the United States and foreign countries. The Treaty of Versailles had little to do with the Fourteen Points made by Woodrow Wilson. The Treaty of Versailles punished Germany alone, blaming it for the cause of the war, while the Fourteen Points sought "peace without victory." The U.S. didn't join the League of Nations, either, which was supposed to be President Wilson's dream of a global peaceful society. He even stated this in his Fourteen Points.
Point Fourteen stated: "A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike."
Oh, yeah, it formed all right. Italy, Germany, Russia, and Japan decided to adopt imperialism. Italy invaded Albania and Ethiopia, Germany invaded Austria and Czechoslovakia, Russia invaded Finland, Japan invaded Manchuria. And guess what? The League of Nations took no action because they were so scared of risking another World War. If Europe had actually stuck to the Fourteen Points and didn't deal with Germany so harshly in the Treaty of Versailles, we might not have had World War II. Hitler used the grievences imposed by the treaty in his speeches among the German population to help him rise in power.
Nobody paid attention to Wilson's Fourteen Points, and the League of Nations became as big a figurehead than the current Queen of England. If all the land that the Central Power took from other countries was just returned and Germany wasn't forced to pay all the reparations, then I believe - as a history student - that World War II could have been averted and peace could have been kept if the Fourteen Points were truly followed. Even our President opposed the Treaty of Versailles, but did France and Britain listen? Nope.
However, there was one point followed after WWI: Poland was given access to the sea, the Polish Corridor which was a strip of land that gave Poland access to the Baltic Sea. Other than the strip of land taken from Germany and given to the Polish state, the Fourteen Points were largely ignored. No country wanted to have international relationships with each other, and were almost entirely nationalist because the war had broken relations between every country. World War II managed to restore them, but at what cost? The cost of millions more lives.
Nick J. · 7 years ago
What problems did Germany face after WW1
and how were they overcome?
A 'crisis is strictly the point in a disease where the patient is finely balanced between recovery on one side and death on the other. The Weimar republic experienced two periods of crisis. The first was between 1919-1923, from which it recovered. The second, between 1929 and 1933 killed it. The crisis of 1919-23 had three causes. One was an external cause, which was the treatment of Germany by the allies. The others were internal, economic collapse and the political putsches; all of these were interconnected. Germany had surrended to the allies on 11 November 1918, two days after the formation of the republic. In June 1919 the terms of the treaty of Versailles were announced and Germany was held to be 'guilty' of causing the First World War and all of the damage resulting from it. Hence, the German nation was expected to pay compensation.
The aim of this essay is to investigate the problems that Germany faced after world war one and how they were overcome between the years 1918-1920.
The Weimar republic was born out of Germanys defeat in the First World War. The German armies had failed to break through the western front against Britain and France. The German people had also suffered great hardship and starvation as a result of a blockade of their ports by the British navy. As a result it was inevitable of German failure and on 9 November the Kaiser abdicated and fled to the Netherlands. Due to the chaos of the collapsing Reich, a new government somehow had to be formed. There were two main possibilities of a government. One, being a formation of a democracy advocated by the social democrats, which at that time were the largest political party in Germany.
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Divided by the Ballot Box: The Montreal Council of Women and the 1917 Election
Abstract: Prime Minister Robert Borden created the Wartime Elections Act in September 1917 – a move that granted temporary voting rights to women who had close relatives serving in the military. Their votes were positioned as key to winning the war because it was assumed that newly enfranchised wives and mothers would support Borden’s controversial conscription plans to reinforce their husbands and sons at the front. Suffragists across the country were divided by the act’s limited enfranchisement and its connection to conscription. This turmoil reached its pinnacle in Montreal, a city that was at the centre of nationalistic and ethnic strife caused by the war, and triggered rifts within the city’s largest Anglophone women’s organization, the Montreal Council of Women. One result of this tension was the impeachment trial of the council’s long-time president, Dr Grace Ritchie-England, for her criticism of the Wartime Elections Act and conscription during the 1917 federal election. Calling attention to the resistance of and conflicts between middleclass club women who were normally viewed as hegemonically supportive of the war effort widens our understanding of women’s disparate opinions and activism during the First World War and the fragile nature of suffragists’ political unity.
Keywords: First World War, suffrage, women, Montreal, elections ´ ´ Resume. En septembre 1917, le premier ministre Robert Borden fait adopter la Loi des ´ elections en temps de guerre, qui accorde temporairement le droit de vote aux femmes ´ ´ ´´ ayant des proches parents dans l’armee. Le vote de ces nouvelles electrices est considere ´ ´ comme determinant pour l’issue de la guerre, car on tient pour acquis que les epouses et ` ´ les meres appuieront le projet controverse de Borden d’envoyer des conscrits en renfort ` ´ ´ ` aupres de leurs maris et de leurs fils. Ce droit de vote limite et amarre a la conscription ` ´ divise cependant les militantes suffragistes du pays. La controverse culmine a Montreal, ´ ´ ` situe au cœur des tensions nationalistes et ethniques liees a l’effort de guerre, et provoque ´ des scissions au sein de la principale organisation feminine anglophone de la ville, le ´ ´ Montreal Council of Women. Il en resulte entre autres une tentative de demettre celle qui ´ preside l’organisation depuis longtemps, la Dre Grace Ritchie-England, pour avoir ´ ´ critique la conscription et la Loi des elections en temps de guerre pendant la campagne ´ ´ ´ electorale de 1917. En s’interessant aux resistances et aux conflits entre femmes de la ´ classe moyenne, membres d’associations feminines, habituellement vues comme ayant The Canadian Historical Review 89, 4, December 2008 ß University of Toronto Press Incorporated doi:10.3138/chr.89.4.473
474 The Canadian Historical Review
´ ´ unanimement appuye l’effort de guerre, cet article pose un regard plus nuance sur ´ ´ ` l’activisme feminin et la diversite de ses opinions pendant la Premiere Guerre mondiale, ˆ ´ de meme que sur la fragilite du consensus politique chez les suffragistes. ´ `re ´ ´ Mots cles. Premie Guerre mondiale – suffrage feminin – femmes – Montreal – ´ elections
In January and February 1918, a special committee made of members from the Montreal Council of Women (MCW), a coalition of forty-four local women’s organizations, met four times to hear complaints against their president, Dr Octavia Grace Ritchie-England, and decide whether she should be impeached for her behaviour during the 1917 federal election. It was the opinion of eight affiliated clubs that Ritchie-England was no longer fit to be president of the city’s largest women’s organization. Her patriotism and politics had been called into question and a few members had gone so far as to call her a traitor.1 One might assume accusations of this kind stemmed from Ritchie-England’s proclaiming herself against.
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