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Francis Hopkinson

Francis Hopkinson

Francis Hopkinson (September 21, 1737 – May 9, 1791) was an American author and one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence as a delegate from New Jersey. He later served as a federal judge in Pennsylvania. He was the designer of the first American flag .

Early and Family Life

Francis Hopkinson was born at Philadelphia in 1737, the son of Thomas Hopkinson and Mary Johnson. He became a member of the first class at the College of Philadelphia (now the University of Pennsylvania ) in 1751 and graduated in 1757, receiving his master's degree in 1760, and a doctor in law (honorary) in 1790. He was secretary to a Provincial Council of Pennsylvania Indian commission in 1761 that made a treaty with the Delaware and several Iroquois tribes. In 1763, he was appointed customs collector for Salem, New Jersey. Hopkinson spent from May 1766 to August 1767 in England in hopes of becoming commissioner of customs for North America. Although unsuccessful, he spent time with the future Prime Minister Lord North. Hopkinson's cousin James Johnson (Bishop of Worcester). and the painter Benjamin West. [ 1 ] :133

After his return, Hopkinson operated a dry goods business in Philadelphia and married Ann Borden on September 1, 1768. They would have five children.

Legal career

Hopkinson obtained a public appointment as a customs collector for New Castle, Delaware on May 1, 1772. He moved to Bordentown, New Jersey in 1774, became a member of the New Jersey Provincial Council. and was admitted to the New Jersey bar on May 8, 1775. He resigned his crown-appointed positions in 1776 and, on June 22, went on to represent New Jersey in the Second Continental Congress where he signed the Declaration of Independence. He was appointed to Congress’ Marine Committee in that year. He departed the Congress on November 30, 1776 to serve on the Navy Board at Philadelphia. The Board reported to the Marine Committee. Hopkinson later became the Navy Board’s chairman. As part of the fledgling nation's government, he was treasurer of the Continental Loan Office in 1778; appointed judge of the Admiralty Court of Pennsylvania in 1779 and reappointed in 1780 and 1787; and helped ratify the Constitution during the constitutional convention in 1787. [ 1 ] :chapter VI [ 1 ] :325

On September 24, 1789, President George Washington nominated Hopkinson to the newly created position of judge of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. He was confirmed by the United States Senate. and received his commission, on September 26, 1789.

Only a few years into his service as a federal judge, Hopkinson died in Philadelphia at the age of 53 from a sudden apoplectic seizure. [ 1 ] :449 He was buried in Christ Church Burial Ground in Philadelphia. [ 2 ] He was the father of Joseph Hopkinson. who was a member of the United States House of Representatives and also became a federal judge. Hopkinson was the designer of the American Flag. He did not get his due in life. At one point, he asked for a quarter cask of wine for his efforts, [ 1 ] :241 which he never received.

Cultural contributions

Hopkinson was an amateur author and songwriter at a time when Philadelphia and the colonies were not well known for the arts. He wrote popular airs and political satires (jeux d'esprit ) in the form of poems and pamphlets. Some were widely circulated, and powerfully assisted in arousing and fostering the spirit of political independence that issued in the American Revolution .

His principal writings are A Pretty Story. (1774), a satire about King George, The Prophecy (1776), and The Political Catechism (1777). [ 3 ] Other notable essays are "Typographical Method of conducting a Quarrel", "Essay on White Washing", and "Modern Learning". Many of his writings can be found in Miscellaneous Essays and Occasional Writings. published at Philadelphia in three volumes in 1792 (see Bibliography).

Hopkinson was a reputed amateur musician. He began to play the harpsichord at age seventeen and, during the 1750s, hand-copied arias, songs, and instrumental pieces by many European composers. He is credited as being the first American born composer to commit a composition to paper with his 1759 composition "My Days Have Been So Wondrous Free." By the 1760s he was good enough on the harpsichord to play with professional musicians in concerts. Some of his more notable songs include "The Treaty", "The Battle of the Kegs ", and "The New Roof, a song for Federal Mechanics". He also played organ at Philadelphia's Christ Church and composed or edited a number of hymns and psalms including: "A Collection of Psalm Tunes with a few Anthems and Hymns Some of them Entirely New, for the Use of the United Churches of Christ Church and St. Peter's Church in Philadelphia" (1763), "A psalm of thanksgiving, Adapted to the Solemnity of Easter: To be performed on Sunday, the 30th of March, 1766, at Christ Church, Philadelphia" (1766), and "The Psalms of David, with the Ten Commandments, Creed, Lord's Prayer, &c. in Metre" (1767). In the 1780s, Hopkinson modified a glass harmonica to be played with a keyboard and invented the Bellarmonic. an instrument that utilized the tones of metal balls. [ 4 ] In 1788 he published a collection of 8 songs dedicated to his friend George Washington and his daughter called "Seven Songs for the Harpsichord" and voice.

At his alma mater, University of Pennsylvania. one of the buildings in the Fisher-Hassenfeld College House is named after him.

Bibliography Books
  • The Miscellaneous Essays and Occasional Writings of Francis Hopkinson, Esq Printed by T. Dobson, 1792. Available via Google Books: Volume I. Volume II. Volume III
  • Judgments in the Admiralty of Pennsylvania in four suits Printed at T. Dobson and T. Lang, 1789. Available via Google Books
Essays
  • A Pretty Story Written in the Year of Our Lord 1774. Printed by John Dunlap, 1774. Available via Google Books
Musical compositions
  • Collection of Plain Tunes with a Few from Anthems and Hymns. Printed by Benjamin Carr, 1763.
  • Temple of Minerva. (The First American Opera) [ 5 ] Printed by Benjamin Carr, 1781.
  • Seven Songs for the Harpsichord or Forte Piano. Printed by T. Dobson, 1788. [ 6 ]
Flag controversy

Possible representation of Francis Hopkinson's Navy flag showing 6-pointed stars in rows.

On Saturday, June 14, 1777, Congress adopted the Stars and Stripes as the first official national flag of the United States. The resolution creating the flag came from the Continental Marine Committee. Hopkinson became a member of the committee in 1776. At the time of the flag’s adoption, he was the Chairman of the Navy Board, which was under the Marine Committee. Today, he would be known as the Secretary of the Navy. [ 7 ]

Hopkinson is recognized as the designer of the flag of the United States, and the journals of the Continental Congress support this. [ 8 ] His first letter in May 25, 1780, requesting compensation from Congress was almost comical. He asked for a quarter cask of wine in payment for designing the U.S. flag, the Great Seal of the United States, and various other contributions. After Congress received a second letter from Hopkinson asking for cash in the amount of L 2,700, the Auditor General, James Milligan, commissioned an evaluation of the request for payment. In this second letter, Hopkinson did not mention designing the flag of the United States. Instead, he listed "the great Naval Flag of the United States" (See illustration of flag.) along with the other contributions. [ 9 ] The report from the commissioner of the Chamber of Accounts said that the bill was reasonable and ought to be paid. Congress used the usual bureaucratic tactics of asking for an itemized bill for payment in cash. After that, there was further bureaucratic back and forth including a request for an itemized bill and a committee to investigate Hopkinson’s charges that his payment was being delayed for arbitrary reasons. Congress eventually refused to pay Hopkinson for the reason that Hopkinson was already paid as a public servant as a member of Congress. Congress also mentioned that Hopkinson was not the only person consulted on the designs that were "incidental" to the Treasury Board. [ 1 ] :240–249 This referred to Hopkinson's work on the Great Seal. [ 10 ] He served as a consultant to a committee working on the design of the Great Seal. [ 11 ] [ 12 ] Fourteen men worked on the Great Seal, including two other consultants – Pierre Eugene Du Simitiere (first Great Seal committee) and William Barton (third committee). [ 13 ] No known committee of the Continental Congress was ever documented with the assignment to design the national flag or naval flag. [ 14 ]

There is no known sketch of a Hopkinson flag—either U.S. or naval—in existence today. Hopkinson, however, did incorporate elements of the two flags he designed in his rough sketch of his Great Seal of the United States and his design for the Admiralty Board Seal. [ 15 ] His rough sketch of the Great Seal [ 16 ] has 7 white stripes and 6 red stripes. The impression of Hopkinson’s Admiralty Board Seal [ 17 ] has a chevron with 7 red stripes and 6 white stripes. The Great Seal reflects Hopkinson’s design for a governmental flag and the Admiralty Board Seal reflects Hopkinson’s design for a naval flag. [ 18 ] Both flags were intended to have 13 stripes. Because the original stars used in the Great Seal had six points, Hopkinson's U.S. flag might also have intended the use of 6-pointed stars. [ 19 ] This is bolstered by his original sketch [ 20 ] that showed asterisks with six points.

The legend of Betsy Ross as the designer of the first flag entered into American consciousness about the time of the 1876 centennial celebrations, owing to the efforts of her grandson, William Canby. [ 21 ] This flag with its circle of 13 stars came into popular use as a flag commemorating the nation's birth. Many Americans today still cling to the Betsy Ross legend that she designed the flag, and most are unaware of Hopkinson's legacy. The circle of stars (a circle connotes eternity) first appeared after the war ended and after Hopkinson’s original design. [ 22 ]

Hopkinson's letter and response

On May 25, 1780, Hopkinson wrote a letter to the Continental Board of Admiralty mentioning several patriotic designs he had completed during the previous three years. One was his Board of Admiralty seal, which contained a shield of seven red and six white stripes on a blue field. Others included the Treasury Board seal. “7 devices for the Continental Currency,” and “the Flag of the United States of America.” [ 23 ]

In the letter, Hopkinson noted that he hadn’t asked for any compensation for the designs, but was now looking for a reward: “a Quarter Cask of the public Wine.” The board sent that letter on to Congress. Hopkinson submitted another bill on June 24 for his “drawings and devices.” The first item on the list was “The Naval Flag of the United States.” The price listed was 9 pounds. This flag with its red, outer stripes was designed to show up well on ships at sea. [ 18 ] A parallel flag for the national flag was most likely intended by Hopkinson with white, outer stripes [ 18 ] as on the Great Seal of the United States and on the Bennington flag. which commemorated 50th anniversary of the founding of the United States (1826). [ 24 ] Ironically, the Navy flag was preferred as the national flag.

The Treasury Board turned down the request in an October 27, 1780, report to Congress. The Board cited several reasons for its action, including the fact that Hopkinson “was not the only person consulted on those exhibitions of Fancy that were incidental to the Board [the U.S. flag, Navy flag, and Great Seal with a reverse], and therefore cannot claim the sole merit of them and not entitled to the full sum charged.” This is most probably a reference to his work as a consultant to the second committee that worked on the Great Seal of the United States. [ 25 ] Therefore, he would not be eligible to be paid for the Great Seal. [ 26 ]

Great Seal of the United States

Francis Hopkinson provided assistance to the second committee that designed the Great Seal of the United States. On today's seal, the 13 stars (constellation) representing the 13 original states have five points. They are arranged in a larger star that has six points. The constellation comprising 13 smaller stars symbolizes the national motto, “E pluribus unum.” Originally, the design had individual stars with six points, but this was changed in 1841 when a new die was cast. This seal is now impressed upon the reverse of the United States one-dollar bill. The seal, designed by William Barton. contains an unfinished pyramid with a radiant eye, an image used by Hopkinson when he designed the continental $50 currency. [ 27 ] [ 28 ]

See also

Other articles

Claude Hopkins

Claude Hopkins

A talented stride pianist, Claude Hopkins never became as famous as he deserved. He was a bandleader early on, and toured Europe in the mid-'20s as the musical director for Josephine Baker. Hopkins returned…
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Artist Biography by Scott Yanow

A talented stride pianist, Claude Hopkins never became as famous as he deserved. He was a bandleader early on, and toured Europe in the mid-'20s as the musical director for Josephine Baker. Hopkins returned to the U.S. in 1926, led his own groups, and in 1930 took over Charlie Skeete's band. Between 1932-1935, he recorded steadily with his big band (all of the music has been reissued on three Classics CDs), which featured Jimmy Mundy arrangements and such fine soloists as trumpeter/vocalist Ovie Alston. trombonist Fernando Arbello. a young Edmond Hall on clarinet, and baritone and tenorman Bobby Sands. along with the popular high-note vocals of Orlando Roberson. The orchestra's recordings are a bit erratic, with more than their share of mistakes from the ensembles and a difficulty in integrating Hopkins ' powerhouse piano with the full group, but they are generally quite enjoyable. Mundy 's eccentric "Mush Mouth" is a classic, and Hopkins introduced his best-known original, "I Would Do Anything for You." Although they played regularly at Roseland (1931-1935) and the Cotton Club (1935-1936), and there were further sessions in 1937 and 1940, the Claude Hopkins big band never really caught on and ended up breaking up at the height of the swing era. Hopkins did lead a later, unrecorded big band (1944-1947), but mostly worked with small groups for the remainder of his career. He played with Red Allen 's group during the second half of the 1950s, led his own band during 1960-1966, and in 1968 was in the Jazz Giants with Wild Bill Davison. Claude Hopkins led an obscure record for 20th Century Fox (1958) and three Swingville albums (1960-1963), but his best later work were solo stride dates for Chiaroscuro and Sackville (both in 1972), and a trio session for Black & Blue in 1974; it is surprising that his piano skills were not more extensively documented.

Francis Hopkinson - The Full Wiki

Francis Hopkinson: Wikis

Francis Hopkinson (September 21, 1737 – May 9, 1791), an American author, was one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence as a delegate from New Jersey. He later served as a federal judge in Pennsylvania. His supporters believe he played a key role in the design of the first American flag .

Contents Education and public life

Francis Hopkinson was born at Philadelphia in 1737, the son of Thomas Hopkinson and Mary Johnson. He became a member of the first class at the College of Philadelphia (now University of Pennsylvania ) in 1751 and graduated in 1757, receiving his masters degree in 1760, and a doctor in law (honorary) in 1790. He was secretary to a Provincial Council of Pennsylvania Indian commission in 1761 that made a treaty with the Delaware and several Iroquois tribes. In 1763, he was appointed customs collector for Salem, New Jersey. Hopkinson spent from May 1766 to August 1767 in England in hopes of becoming commissioner of customs for North America. Although unsuccessful, he spent time with the future Prime Minister Lord North and his half-brother, the Bishop of Worcester Brownlow North. and painter Benjamin West .

After his return, Francis Hopkinson operated a dry goods business in Philadelphia and married Ann Borden on September 1, 1768. They would have five children. Hopkinson obtained a public appointment as a customs collector for New Castle, Delaware on May 1, 1772. He moved to Bordentown, New Jersey in 1774, became an assemblyman for the state's Royal Provincial Council, and was admitted to the New Jersey bar on May 8, 1775. He resigned his crown-appointed positions in 1776 and, on June 22, went on to represent New Jersey in the Second Continental Congress where he signed the Declaration of Independence. He departed the Congress on November 30, 1776 to serve on the Navy Board at Philadelphia. As part of the fledgling nation's government, he was treasurer of the Continental Loan Office in 1778; appointed judge of the Admiralty Court of Pennsylvania in 1779 and reappointed in 1780 and 1787; and helped ratify the Constitution during the constitutional convention in 1787. On September 24, 1789, he was nominated by President George Washington to the newly created position of judge of the United States District Court for the District of Pennsylvania. He was confirmed by the United States Senate. and received his commission, on September 26, 1789.

As a federal judge, Hopkinson died in Philadelphia at the age of 53 from a sudden epileptic seizure. He was buried in Christ Church Burial Ground in Philadelphia. He was the father of Joseph Hopkinson. member of the United States House of Representatives and Federal judge.

Cultural contributions

Hopkinson was an amateur author and songwriter at a time when Philadelphia and the colonies were not well known for the arts. He wrote popular airs and political satires (jeux d'esprit ) in the form of poems and pamphlets. Some were widely circulated, and powerfully assisted in arousing and fostering the spirit of political independence that issued in the American Revolution .

His principal writings are A Pretty Story. (1774), a satire about King George, The Prophecy (1776), and The Political Catechism (1777). [ 1 ] Other notable essays are "Typographical Method of conducting a Quarrel", "Essay on White Washing", and "Modern Learning". Many of his writings can be found in Miscellaneous Essays and Occasional Writings. published at Philadelphia in three volumes in 1792 (see Bibliography).

Hopkinson was a reputed amateur musician. He began to play the harpsichord at age seventeen and, during the 1750s, hand-copied arias, songs, and instrumental pieces by many European composers. He is credited as being the first American born composer to commit a composition to paper with his 1759 composition "My Days Have Been So Wondrous Free." By the 1760s he was good enough on the harpsichord to play with professional musicians in concerts. Some of his more notable songs include "The Treaty", "The Battle of the Kegs ", and "The New Roof, a song for Federal Mechanics". He also played organ at Philadelphia's Christ Church and composed or edited a number of hymns and psalms including: "A Collection of Psalm Tunes with a few Anthems and Hymns Some of them Entirely New, for the Use of the United Churches of Christ Church and St. Peter's Church in Philadelphia" (1763), "A psalm of thanksgiving, Adapted to the Solemnity of Easter: To be performed on Sunday, the 30th of March, 1766, at Christ Church, Philadelphia" (1766), and "The Psalms of David, with the Ten Commandments, Creed, Lord's Prayer, &c. in Metre" (1767). In the 1780s, Hopkinson modified a glass harmonica to be played with a keyboard and invented the Bellarmonic. an instrument that utilized the tones of metal balls. [ 2 ] In 1788 he published a collection of 8 songs dedicated to his friend George Washington and his daughter called "Seven Songs for the Harpsichord" and voice.

Bibliography Books
  • The Miscellaneous Essays and Occasional Writings of Francis Hopkinson, Esq Printed by T. Dobson, 1792. Available via Google Books: Volume I. Volume II. Volume III
  • Judgments in the Admiralty of Pennsylvania in four suits Printed at T. Dobson and T. Lang, 1789. Available via Google Books
Essays
  • A Pretty Story Written in the Year of Our Lord 1774. Printed by John Dunlap, 1774. Available via Google Books
Musical Compositions
  • Collection of Plain Tunes with a Few from Anthems and Hymns. Printed by Benjamin Carr, 1763.
  • Temple of Minerva. (The First American Opera) [ 3 ] Printed by Benjamin Carr, 1781.
  • Seven Songs for the Harpsichord or Forte Piano. Printed by T. Dobson, 1788. [ 4 ]
Flag controversy

Francis Hopkinson's design for a US flag, featuring 6-pointed stars arranged in rows.

Hopkinson claimed to have designed the official "first flag" of the United States and sought compensation from Congress. Congress refused on the pretext that many people were involved in the flag's design, and that Hopkinson was already paid as a public servant. [ 5 ] Another consideration was that the Flag Resolution of 1777, which defined official United States flags, did not specify the arrangement of stars. [ 6 ] Many designs were in use that complied with the flag resolution, with stars arranged in a square, a wreath, rows, patterns, or the familiar "Betsy Ross " circle.

The design of the first Stars and Stripes by Hopkinson had the thirteen stars arranged in a "staggered" pattern technically known as quincuncial because it is based on the repetition of a motif of five units. This arrangement inevitably results in a strongly diagonal effect. In a flag of thirteen stars, this placement produced the unmistakable outline of the crosses of St. George and of St. Andrew, as used together on the British flag. Whether this similarity was intentional or accidental, it may explain why the plainer fashion of placing the stars in three parallel rows was preferred by many Americans over the quincuncial style. [citation needed ]

Hopkinson also designed a flag with stars arranged in a circle. It is similar to the familiar Betsy Ross Flag. except that it uses 6-pointed stars [ 7 ]

Hopkinson's letter and response

On May 25, 1780, Hopkinson wrote a letter to the Continental Board of Admiralty mentioning several patriotic designs he had completed during the previous three years. One was his Board of Admiralty seal, which contained a red-and-white striped shield on a blue field. Others included the Treasury Board seal. “7 devices for the Continental Currency,” and “the Flag of the United States of America.” [ 8 ]

In the letter, Hopkinson noted that he hadn’t asked for any compensation for the designs, but was now looking for a reward: “a Quarter Cask of the public Wine.” The board sent that letter on to Congress. Hopkinson submitted another bill on June 24 for his “drawings and devices.” The first item on the list was “The Naval Flag of the United States.” The price listed was 9 pounds.

The Treasury Board turned down the request in an October 27, 1780, report to Congress. The Board cited several reasons for its action, including the fact that Hopkinson “was not the only person consulted on those exhibitions of Fancy, and therefore cannot claim the sole merit of them and not entitled to the full sum charged.” [ 9 ]

Hopkinson’s itemized bill, moreover, is the only contemporary claim that exists for creating the American flag. Although no "Hopkinson flags" exist from the time period, it is believed that his flag contained 13 red and white stripes and 13 white stars arranged symmetrically on a field of blue.

Great Seal of the United States

Francis Hopkinson provided assistance to the second committee that designed the Great Seal of the United States. This seal is now impressed upon the reverse of the United States one-dollar bill. The seal, designed by William Barton. contains an unfinished pyramid with a radiant eye, an image used by Hopkinson when he designed the continental $50 currency. [ 10 ]

Notes References
  • Hopkinson holdings at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania Online Public Access Catalog.
  • Mastai, Bolesław; Mastai, Marie-Louise d'Otrange. The Stars and the Stripes; the American flag as art and as history from the birth of the Republic to the present. New York, Knopf, 1973. ISBN 0-394-47217-9.
  • Znamierowski, Alfred. The World Encyclopedia of Flags. Hermes House. ISBN 1-84309-042-2.
Sources External links From LoveToKnow 1911

FRANCIS HOPKINSON (1737-1791), American author and statesman, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. was born in Philadelphia. Pennsylvania. on the 2nd of October 1737. He was a son of Thomas Hopkinson (1709-1751), a prominent lawyer of Philadelphia, one of the first trustees of the College of Philadelphia, now the University of Pennsylvania. and first president of the American Philosophical Society. Francis was the first student to enter the College of Philadelphia.

from which he received his bachelor's degree in 1757 and his master's degree in 1760. He then studied law in the office in Philadelphia of Benjamin Chew, and was admitted to the bar in 1761. Removing after 1768 to Bordentown. New Jersey. he became a member of the council of that colony in 1774. On the approach of the War of Independence he identified himself with the patriot or whig element in the colony, and in 1776 and 1777 he was a delegate to the Continental Congress. He served on the committee appointed to frame the Articles of Confederation. executed, with John Nixon (1733-1808) and John Wharton. the "business of the navy " under the direction of the marine committee, and acted for a time as treasurer of the Continental loan office. From 1779 to 1789 he was judge of the court of admiralty in Pennsylvania, and from 1790 until his death was United States district judge for that state. He was famous for his versatility, and besides being a distinguished lawyer, jurist and political leader, was "a mathematician, a chemist, a physicist, a mechanician, an inventor, a musician and a composer of music. a man of literary knowledge and practice, a writer of airy and dainty songs, a clever artist with pencil and brush and a humorist of unmistakeable power" (Tyler, Literary History of the American Revolution). It is as a writer, however, that he will be remembered. He ranks as one of the three leading satirists on the patriot side during the War of Independence. His ballad, The Battle of the Kegs (1778), was long exceedingly popular. To alarm the British force at Philadelphia the Americans floated kegs charged with gunpowder down the Delaware river towards that city, and the British, alarmed for the safety of their shipping. fired with cannon and small arms at everything they saw floating in the river. Hopkinson's ballad is an imaginative expansion of the actual facts. To the cause of the revolution this ballad, says Professor Tyler. "was perhaps worth as much just then as the winning of a considerable battle." Hopkinson's principal writings are The Pretty Story (1774), A Prophecy (1776) and The Political Catechism (1777). Among his songs may be mentioned The Treaty and The New Roof, a Song for Federal Mechanics ; and the best known of his satirical pieces are Typographical Method of conducting a Quarrel, Essay on White Washing and Modern Learning. His Miscellaneous Essays and Occasional Writings were published at Philadelphia in 3 vols. 1792.

His son, Joseph Hopkinson (1770-1842), graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1786, studied law, and was a Federalist member of the national House of Representatives in 1815-1819, Federal judge of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania from 1828 until his death, and a member of the state constitutional convention of 1837. He is better known, however, as the author of the patriotic anthem "Hail Columbia " (1798).

John Hopkins Essay (the nation where people may be per-amptively executed)

John Hopkins Essay (the nation where people may be per-amptively executed)

2. Write a brief essay in which you respond to the following question.
Johns Hopkins offers 49 majors across the schools of Arts and Sciences and Engineering. on this supplement, we ask you to identify one or two that you might like to pursue here. Why did you choose the way you did? If you are undecided, why didn't you choose? (If any past courses or academic experiences influenced your decision, you may include them in your essay.)

Imagine a nation where people are executed not for whatever wrong they did, but for what they might do. Imagine a person who was convicted of being a French spy solely due to his first name (Napoleon) and sentenced to 30 years in a labour camp. Imagine a leader who commanded such great respect from his people that they would believe whatever he said whilst he was massacring their friends and relatives. Imagine a government which committed atrocities on such a vast magnitude that Pol Pot's project seemed like child's play in comparison. Think Oceania from 1984, and place it in Northern Europe. This is more or less an accurate picture of what Stalinist Russia was like.

After reading this, I would expect you to be horrified, shocked even. I know I was when I first read about it. I felt incredulous at the extent of his crimes against mankind, crimes against his own people even. I also felt confused and amazed; I could not understand how the Russians could have tolerated what would be termed as madness in any half normal society. After I found out just how tight Stalin's grip on Russia was I felt pity and sympathy for those hundreds of millions of people who suffered directly or indirectly because of Stalin's policies. I would expect you to feel the same as I did. You would probably be more shocked however if I told you that Joseph Stalin was voted the 3rd greatest Russian ever in a national poll.

The fact that history is a study in human beings means that it is able to invoke emotions in the people studying it like no other subject can. I am aware that some people literally cry with joy after solving a particularly difficult equation; however personally I can not empathise with a set of numbers. One can not help but be impressed by Caesar's ingenious tactics or admire Trotsky's courage and perseverance. At the same time, one naturally feels hugely sympathetic to Stalin's victims and horror towards his lack of regard for basic human morals.

Unless we experience history firsthand, our knowledge of it puts us at the mercy of those historians who choose to describe to us a particular set of events, either in written form or in the spoken form: an oral tradition handed down, or, both written and spoken forms, especially if the events have occurred since the invention of the radio, television, or other means of mass communication, such as the Internet. In modern times, therefore, our knowledge of history, and hence our perception of it, is presented to us in a combination of several formats.

My passion for history stems from the fact that it is one of the few subjects which allow, indeed it encourages, debate amongst its participants. This factor makes it stand out amongst nearly every other subject. Take for example, science. There is no doubt, no question about the validity or application of Newton's Laws of Motion, on Earth at the very least. He was able to prove it through mathematical calculations and logical deduction, backed up with empirical evidence. Some people prefer it when there is a solid answer to a question. I personally however prefer a subject where I can hear both sides of an argument before making a judgement. The beauty of history is that it provides for this. The analysis of historical facts, in an attempt to answer the why of anything is always debatable. Historians are never impartial to a historical event, and so any conclusion a historian may come up with is nearly always followed by a lengthy and fiery debate about its validity. Only the facts remain relatively certain; however even the same facts can be presented in a different light to favour a different argument.

The philosopher and novelist George Santayana once said that "Those who cannot learn from history are doomed to repeat it". In my opinion, this is the crux of learning history. History repeats itself; the description in the first paragraph can easily apply to Mao's China as well.

anything would be much appreciated.

EF_Sean Threads: 6
Posts: 3,609
Author: Sean, EssayForum.com [Moderator]

Overall, I really liked this essay. Here are some pointers:

"My passion for history stems from the fact that it is one of the few subjects which allows, indeed encourages. debate amongst its participants."

"Take for example, science. There is no doubt, no question about the validity or application of Newton's Laws of Motion, on Earth at the very least. He was able to prove it through mathematical calculations and logical deduction, backed up with empirical evidence. Some people prefer it when there is a solid answer to a question." Um, actually, science is full of debate. While the theory of evolution is widely accepted, the various mechanisms by which it occurs are still a matter of fierce contention. Most of the science underlying the causes of global warming (as opposed to the warming itself) is in constant flux. There are established theories as to how the dinosaurs died out, but which one is ultimately correct still has to be decided. Also, Newton's laws of motion are wrong. Einstein proved it. The fact that Newton's formulas happen to be much easier to use and give answers that are close enough for our purposes "here on Earth" do not make them either valid or right.

" The philosopher and novelist George Santayana once said that 'Those who cannot learn from history are doomed to repeat it'. In my opinion, this is the crux of learning history. History repeats itself; the description in the first paragraph can easily apply to Mao's China as well." This seems to have little to do with the points you have made in your body paragraph.

Haha last paragraph was mean trying to add a tiny bit of wit to it.

Do you think I should take it out?

EF_Sean Threads: 6
Posts: 3,609
Author: Sean, EssayForum.com [Moderator]

Ah. Um, well, sorry to disappoint, but yes, the last paragraph could be expanded into a new point about history, or it could be deleted. As it stands, it is a conclusion that does not conclude, which is unfortunate.

Francis Hopkinson

WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

Francis Hopkinson (September 21, [1] [2] 1737 – May 9, 1791) designed the first official American flag. He was an author, a composer, and one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence as a delegate from New Jersey. He served in various roles in the early United States government including as a member of the Continental Congress and chair of the Navy Board. He also served as a federal judge in Pennsylvania.

Contents Early and Family Life [ edit ]

Francis Hopkinson was born at Philadelphia in 1737, the son of Thomas Hopkinson and Mary Johnson. He became a member of the first class at the College of Philadelphia (now the University of Pennsylvania ) in 1751 and graduated in 1757, receiving his master's degree in 1760, and a doctor in law (honorary) in 1790. He was secretary to a Provincial Council of Pennsylvania Indian commission in 1761 that made a treaty with the Delaware and several Iroquois tribes. In 1763, he was appointed customs collector for Salem, New Jersey. Hopkinson spent from May 1766 to August 1767 in England in hopes of becoming commissioner of customs for North America. Although unsuccessful, he spent time with the future Prime Minister Lord North. Hopkinson's cousin James Johnson (Bishop of Worcester). and the painter Benjamin West. [3] :133

After his return, Hopkinson operated a dry goods business in Philadelphia and married Ann Borden on September 1, 1768. They would have five children.

Legal career [ edit ]

Hopkinson obtained a public appointment as a customs collector for New Castle, Delaware on May 1, 1772. He moved to Bordentown, New Jersey in 1774, became a member of the New Jersey Provincial Council. and was admitted to the New Jersey bar on May 8, 1775. He resigned his crown-appointed positions in 1776 and, on June 22, went on to represent New Jersey in the Second Continental Congress where he signed the Declaration of Independence. He was appointed to Congress’ Marine Committee in that year. He departed the Congress on November 30, 1776 to serve on the Navy Board at Philadelphia. The Board reported to the Marine Committee. Hopkinson later became the Navy Board’s chairman. As part of the nation's government, he was treasurer of the Continental Loan Office in 1778; appointed judge of the Admiralty Court of Pennsylvania in 1779 and reappointed in 1780 and 1787; and helped ratify the Constitution during the constitutional convention in 1787. [3] :chapter VI [3] :325

On September 24, 1789, President George Washington nominated Hopkinson to the newly created position of judge of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. He was confirmed by the United States Senate. and received his commission, on September 26, 1789.

Only a few years into his service as a federal judge, Hopkinson died in Philadelphia at the age of 53 from a sudden apoplectic seizure. [3] :449 He was buried in Christ Church Burial Ground in Philadelphia. [4] He was the father of Joseph Hopkinson. who was a member of the United States House of Representatives and also became a federal judge. Hopkinson was the designer of the American flag. He did not get his due in life. At one point, he asked for a quarter cask of wine for his efforts, [3] :241 which he never received.

Cultural contributions [ edit ]

Hopkinson wrote popular airs and political satires (jeux d'esprit ) in the form of poems and pamphlets. Some were widely circulated, and powerfully assisted in arousing and fostering the spirit of political independence that issued in the American Revolution. His principal writings are A Pretty Story. (1774), a satire about King George, The Prophecy (1776), and The Political Catechism (1777). [5]

Other notable essays are "Typographical Method of conducting a Quarrel", "Essay on White Washing", and "Modern Learning". Many of his writings can be found in Miscellaneous Essays and Occasional Writings. published at Philadelphia in three volumes in 1792 (see Bibliography).

Hopkinson began to play the harpsichord at age seventeen and, during the 1750s, hand-copied arias, songs, and instrumental pieces by many European composers. He is credited as being the first American born composer to commit a composition to paper with his 1759 composition "My Days Have Been So Wondrous Free." By the 1760s he was good enough on the harpsichord to play with professional musicians in concerts. Some of his more notable songs include "The Treaty", "The Battle of the Kegs ", and "The New Roof, a song for Federal Mechanics". He also played organ at Philadelphia's Christ Church and composed or edited a number of hymns and psalms including: "A Collection of Psalm Tunes with a few Anthems and Hymns Some of them Entirely New, for the Use of the United Churches of Christ Church and St. Peter's Church in Philadelphia" (1763), "A psalm of thanksgiving, Adapted to the Solemnity of Easter: To be performed on Sunday, the 30th of March, 1766, at Christ Church, Philadelphia" (1766), and "The Psalms of David, with the Ten Commandments, Creed, Lord's Prayer, &c. in Metre" (1767). In the 1780s, Hopkinson modified a glass harmonica to be played with a keyboard and invented the Bellarmonic. an instrument that utilized the tones of metal balls. [6]

At his alma mater, University of Pennsylvania. one of the buildings in the Fisher-Hassenfeld College House is named after him. [7]

Bibliography [ edit ] Books [ edit ]
  • The Miscellaneous Essays and Occasional Writings of Francis Hopkinson, Esq Printed by T. Dobson, 1792. Available via Google Books: Volume I. Volume II. Volume III
  • Judgments in the Admiralty of Pennsylvania in four suits Printed at T. Dobson and T. Lang, 1789. Available via Google Books
Essays [ edit ]
  • A Pretty Story Written in the Year of Our Lord 1774. Printed by John Dunlap, 1774. Available via Google Books
Musical compositions [ edit ]
  • Collection of Plain Tunes with a Few from Anthems and Hymns. Printed by Benjamin Carr, 1763.
  • Temple of Minerva. (The First American Opera) [8] Printed by Benjamin Carr, 1781.
  • Seven Songs for the Harpsichord or Forte Piano. Printed by T. Dobson, 1788. [9]
Flag controversy [ edit ]

Possible representation of Francis Hopkinson's Navy flag showing 6-pointed stars in rows.

On Saturday, June 14, 1777, Congress adopted the Stars and Stripes as the first official national flag of the United States. The resolution creating the flag came from the Continental Marine Committee. Hopkinson became a member of the committee in 1776. At the time of the flag’s adoption, he was the Chairman of the Navy Board, which was under the Marine Committee. Today, he would be known as the Secretary of the Navy. [10]

Hopkinson is recognized as the designer of the flag of the United States, and the journals of the Continental Congress support this. [11] His first letter in May 25, 1780, requesting compensation from Congress was almost comical. He asked for a quarter cask of wine in payment for designing the U.S. flag, the Great Seal of the United States, and various other contributions. After Congress received a second letter from Hopkinson asking for cash in the amount of L 2,700, the Auditor General, James Milligan, commissioned an evaluation of the request for payment. In this second letter, Hopkinson did not mention designing the flag of the United States. Instead, he listed "the great Naval Flag of the United States" (See illustration of flag.) along with the other contributions. [12] The report from the commissioner of the Chamber of Accounts said that the bill was reasonable and ought to be paid. Congress used the usual bureaucratic tactics of asking for an itemized bill for payment in cash. After that, there was further bureaucratic back and forth including a request for an itemized bill and a committee to investigate Hopkinson’s charges that his payment was being delayed for arbitrary reasons. Congress eventually refused to pay Hopkinson for the reason that Hopkinson was already paid as a public servant as a member of Congress. Congress also mentioned that Hopkinson was not the only person consulted on the designs that were "incidental" to the Treasury Board. [3] :240–249 This referred to Hopkinson's work on the Great Seal. [13] He served as a consultant to a committee working on the design of the Great Seal. [14] [15] Fourteen men worked on the Great Seal, including two other consultants – Pierre Eugene Du Simitiere (first Great Seal committee) and William Barton (third committee). [16] No known committee of the Continental Congress was ever documented with the assignment to design the national flag or naval flag. [17]

There is no known sketch of a Hopkinson flag—either U.S. or naval—in existence today. Hopkinson, however, did incorporate elements of the two flags he designed in his rough sketches of the Great Seal of the United States and his design for the Admiralty Board Seal. [18] The rough sketch of his second Great Seal proposal has 7 white stripes and 6 red stripes. [19] The impression of Hopkinson’s Admiralty Board Seal [20] has a chevron with 7 red stripes and 6 white stripes. The Great Seal reflects Hopkinson’s design for a governmental flag and the Admiralty Board Seal reflects Hopkinson’s design for a naval flag. [21] Both flags were intended to have 13 stripes. Because the original stars used in the Great Seal had six points, Hopkinson's U.S. flag might also have intended the use of 6-pointed stars. [22] This is bolstered by his original sketch [23] that showed asterisks with six points.

The legend of Betsy Ross as the designer of the first flag entered into American consciousness about the time of the 1876 centennial celebrations, owing to the efforts of her grandson, William Canby. [24] This flag with its circle of 13 stars came into popular use as a flag commemorating the nation's birth. Many Americans today still cling to the Betsy Ross legend that she designed the flag, and most are unaware of Hopkinson's legacy. The circle of stars (a circle connotes eternity) first appeared after the war ended and after Hopkinson’s original design. [25]

Hopkinson's letter and response [ edit ]

On May 25, 1780, Hopkinson wrote a letter to the Continental Board of Admiralty mentioning several patriotic designs he had completed during the previous three years. One was his Board of Admiralty seal, which contained a shield of seven red and six white stripes on a blue field. Others included the Treasury Board seal. “7 devices for the Continental Currency,” and “the Flag of the United States of America.” [26]

In the letter, Hopkinson noted that he hadn’t asked for any compensation for the designs, but was now looking for a reward: “a Quarter Cask of the public Wine.” The board sent that letter on to Congress. Hopkinson submitted another bill on June 24 for his “drawings and devices.” The first item on the list was “The Naval Flag of the United States.” The price listed was 9 pounds. This flag with its red, outer stripes was designed to show up well on ships at sea. [21] A parallel flag for the national flag was most likely intended by Hopkinson with white, outer stripes [21] as on the Great Seal of the United States and on the Bennington flag. which commemorated 50th anniversary of the founding of the United States (1826). [27] Ironically, the Navy flag was preferred as the national flag.

The Treasury Board turned down the request in an October 27, 1780, report to Congress. The Board cited several reasons for its action, including the fact that Hopkinson “was not the only person consulted on those exhibitions of Fancy [that were incidental to the Board (the U.S. flag, the Navy flag, the Admiralty seal, and the Great Seal with a reverse)], and therefore cannot claim the sole merit of them and not entitled in this respect to the full sum charged.” [28] This is most probably a reference to his work as a consultant to the second committee that worked on the Great Seal of the United States. [29] Therefore, he would not be eligible to be paid for the Great Seal. [30]

Great Seal of the United States [ edit ]

Francis Hopkinson provided assistance to the second committee that designed the Great Seal of the United States. On today's seal, the 13 stars (constellation) representing the 13 original states have five points. They are arranged in a larger star that has six points. The constellation comprising 13 smaller stars symbolizes the national motto, “E pluribus unum.” Originally, the design had individual stars with six points, but this was changed in 1841 when a new die was cast. This seal is now impressed upon the reverse of the United States one-dollar bill. The seal, designed by William Barton. contains an unfinished pyramid with a radiant eye, an image used by Hopkinson when he designed the continental $50 currency. [31] [32]

See also [ edit ]
  • Biography portal
Notes [ edit ]
  1. ^ http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=H000783
  2. ^ Francis Hopkinson was born on September 21, 1737, according to the then-used Julian calendar. In 1752, however, Britain and all its colonies adopted the Gregorian calendar, which moved Hopkinson’s birthday 11 days to October 2, 1737. See George E. Hastings, The Life and Works of Francis Hopkinson. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1926), p. 43.
  3. ^ abcdef Hastings, George (1926). The Life and Works of Francis Hopkinson. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.  
  4. ^ Francis Hopkinson at Find a Grave
  5. ^ Charles Wells Moulton. ed. (1902). The Library of Literary Criticism of English and American Authors: 1785–1824 . Buffalo, NY: The Moulton Publishing Company. p. 131.  
  6. ^ Francis Hopkinson biography at the Library of Congress Performing Arts Digital Library ; accessed 30 September 2015.
  7. ^ "Hopkinson | Fisher College House". fh.house.upenn.edu. Retrieved 2016-06-02.  
  8. ^ Pennsylvania Center for the Book on Hopkinson and his writings
  9. ^ "Seven Songs for the Harpsichord or Forte Piano". Early American Secular Music and its European Sources, 1589–1839. Retrieved 2009-05-05.  
  10. ^ Zall, Paul M. (1976). Comical Spirit of Seventy-Six: The Humor of Francis Hopkinson. San Marino, California: Huntington Library. p. 10.  
  11. ^ Furlong, William Rea; McCandless, Byron (1981). So Proudly We Hail. Washington, D.C. Smithsonian Institution Press. p. 101.  
  12. ^ Williams Jr. Earl P. (October 2012). "Did Francis Hopkinson Design Two Flags?". NAVA News (216): 7.  
  13. ^ Williams, Jr. Earl P. (Spring 1988). "The 'Fancy Work' of Francis Hopkinson: Did He Design the Stars and Stripes?". Prologue: Quarterly of the National Archives. 20 (1): 48.  
  14. ^ transcript
  15. ^ Buescher, John. "All Wrapped up in the Flag". Teachinghistory.org. accessed August 21, 2011.
  16. ^ Williams, Jr. Earl P. (June 14, 1996). "A Civil Servant Designed Our National Banner: The Unsung Legacy of Francis Hopkinson". The New Constellation (newsletter of the National Flag Foundation). Special Edition #7: 8.  
  17. ^ Canby, George; Balderston, Lloyd (1909). The Evolution of the American Flag. Philadelphia: Ferris & Leach. p. 48.  
  18. ^ Williams (2012), pp. 7-9.
  19. ^ Patterson, Richard S.; Dougall, Richardson (1978). The Eagle and the Shield: A History of the Great Seal of the United States. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 37.  
  20. ^ Moeller, Henry W. Ph.D. (January 2002). "Two Early American Ensigns on the Pennsylvania State Arms". NAVA News (173): fn. 41 & 42.  
  21. ^ abc Williams (2012), pp. 7–9.
  22. ^ Williams (2012), p. 8.
  23. ^ Patterson and Dougall, p. 9.
  24. ^ Canby and Balderston, pp. 110–11.
  25. ^ Cooper, Grace Rogers (1973). Thirteen-Star Flags: Keys to Identification. Washington, D.C. Smithsonian Institution Press. p. 11.  
  26. ^ Leepson, Marc; DeMille, Nelson. Flag: An American Biography. St. Martin's Griffin. p. 33. ISBN  978-0-312-32309-7.  
  27. ^ Joint Committee on Printing, U.S. Congress (2007). Our Flag (Rev. ed.109th Congress, 2nd Session ed.). Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office. ISBN  978-0-16-076598-8.  
  28. ^ Williams (1988), p. 47.
  29. ^ Williams (1988), p. 48.
  30. ^ Journals of the Continental Congress – Friday, October 27, 1780
  31. ^ wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c9/Continental_$50_note_1778
  32. ^ Univ. of Notre Dame, Coin and Currency Collections
  • Francis Hopkinson holdings at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania Online Public Access Catalog.
  • Mastai, Bolesław; Mastai, Marie-Louise d'Otrange. The Stars and the Stripes; the American flag as art and as history from the birth of the Republic to the present. New York, Knopf, 1973. ISBN  0-394-47217-9.  
  • Znamierowski, Alfred. The World Encyclopedia of Flags. Hermes House. ISBN  1-84309-042-2.  
External links [ edit ]

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