Exercise 2.Read and translate the text. Choose the information in it to give a summary of the text.
50 years ago people didn't even heard of computers, and today we cannot imagine life without them.
Computer technology is the fastest-growing industry in the world. The first computer was the size of a minibus and weighed a ton. Today, its job can be done by a chip of the size of a pin head. And the revolution is still going on.
Very soon we'll have computers that we'll wear on our wrists or even in our glasses and earrings.
The next generation of computers will be able to talk and even think for themselves. They will contain electronic "neural networks". Of course, they'll be still a lot simpler than human brains, but it will be a great step forward. Such computers will help to diagnose illnesses, find minerals, identify criminals and control space travel.
Some people say that computers are dangerous, but I don't agree with them.
They save a lot of time. They seldom make mistakes. It's much faster and easier to surf the Internet than to go to the library.
On-line shopping makes it possible to find exactly what you want at the best price, saving both time and money.
E-mail is a great invention, too. It's faster than sending a letter and cheaper than sending a telegram.
All in all, I strongly believe that computers are a useful tool. They have changed our life for the better. So why shouldn't we make them work to our advantage?
Exercise 3.Answer the following questions and motivate your answers.
1. Have you got a computer?
2. Do you think it's a useful tool?
3. Will computers become smaller in the future?
4. Can the Internet help you to do your homework?
5. Can computers help us to learn foreign languages?
6. Do you play computer games?
7. What are the advantages of on-line shopping?
8. What are the advantages of e-mail?
9. Do you think that computers are bad for health?
10. Some people have made friends through the Internet. What about you?
11. Some people say that computers make us less sociable. Do you agree?
12. What will the next generation of computers be able to do?
Exercise 4.Read the new words below and learn them by heart.
Exercise 5.Read and translate the text. Speak about the first calculating devices mentioned in the text.
J. Napier ['neɪpɪə]
Isaac Newton ['aɪzək 'njuːt(ə)n]
Charles Babbage [ʧɑːlz bbiʤ]
Herman Hollerith ['hɜːmən 'hərɪTEXT A. THE FIRST CALCULATING DEVICES
Let us take a look at the history of computers that we know today. The very first calculating device used was the ten fingers of a man's hands. This, in fact, is why today we still count in tens and multiples of tens.
Then the abacus was invented. People went on using some form of abacus well into the 16th century, and it is still being used in some parts of the world because it can be understood without knowing how to read.
During the 17th and 18th centuries many people tried to find easy ways of calculating. J. Napier, a Scotsman, invented a mechanical way of multiplying and dividing, which is how the modern slide rule works. Henry Briggs used Napier's ideas to produce logarithm tables which all mathematicians use today.
Calculus, another branch of mathematics, was independently invented by both Sir Isaac Newton, an Englishman, and Leibniz, a German mathematician. The first real calculating machine appeared in 1820 as the result of several people's experiments.
In 1830 Charles Babbage, a gifted English mathematician, proposed to build a general-purpose problem-solving machine that he called "the analytical engine". This machine, which Babbage showed at the Paris Exhibition in 1855, was an attempt to cut out the human being altogether, except for providing the machine with the necessary facts about the problem to be solved. He never finished this work, but many of his ideas were the basis for building today's computers.
By the early part of the twentieth century electromechanical machines had been developed and were used for business data processing. Dr. Herman Hollerith, a young statistician from the US Census Bureau successfully tabulated the 1890 census. Hollerith invented a means of coding the data by punching holes into cards. He built one machine to punch the holes and others to tabulate the collected data. Later Hollerith left the Census Bureau and established his own tabulating machine company. Through a series of merges the company eventually became the IBM Corporation.
Until the middle of the twentieth century machines designed to manipulate punched card data were widely used for business data processing. These early electromechanical data processors were called unit record machines because each punched card contained a unit of data.
In the mid–1940s electronic computers were developed to perform calculations for military and scientific purposes. By the end of the 1960s commercial models of these computers were widely used for both scientific computation and business data processing. Initially these computers accepted their input data from punched cards. By the late 1970s punched cards had been almost universally replaced by keyboard terminals. Since that time advances in science have led to the proliferation of computers throughout our society, and the past is but the prologue that gives us a glimpse of the future.
Exercise 6.Find the English equivalents in the text.
Exercise 7.Look back in the text and answer the following question:
1. What was the very first calculating device? 2. What is the abacus? 3. What is the modern slide rule? 4. Who gave the ideas for producing logarithm tables? 5. How did Newton and Leibniz contribute to the problem of calculation? 6. When did the first calculating machine appear? 7. What was the main idea of Ch. Babbage's machine? 8. How did electromechanical machines appear and what were they used for? 9. What means of coding the data did Hollerith devise? 10. How were those electromechanical machines called and why? 11. What kind of computers appeared later? 12. What new had the computers of 1970s?
Exercise 8.Remember the meaning of the given verbs. Think about word formation with help of suffixes. Use your dictionary.
Example. to calculate – calculating, calculator, calculation.
To compute, to invent, to know, to multiply, to divide, to depend, to solve, to provide, to process, to code, to punch, to collect, to design, to store, to contribute, to use, to manipulate, to assemble, to connect, to consume, to rely, to divide, to multiply, to inform, to instruct, to discover, to operate.
Exercise 9.Translate the following word combinations including:
Computers using vacuum tubes; the machine calculating mathematical problems; the computer keeping instructions in its memory; binary code storing data and instructions; the vacuum tube controlling and amplifying electronic signals; computers performing computations in milliseconds; electronic pulses moving at the speed of light; students coding the information by using a binary code; devices printing the information; keyboard terminals replacing vacuum tubes.
B: Participle II
The given information; the name given to the machine; the coded data; the device used in World War II; the invention named ENIAC; the machine called EDVAC; instructions kept in the memory; the engine designed for storing data; data stored in a binary code; vacuum tubes invented by J. Neumann; the general-purpose machine proposed by Ch. Babbage; the machine provided with the necessary facts.
Exercise 10.Before reading the text below, learn the following professional vocabulary:
Exercise 11.Read and translate the text. Tell what you have learnt about the first analog and digital computers.
Vannevar Bush [buʃ]
Howard Aiken ['hauəd ˈeɪkən]
John von Neumann [ˈʤɔn vnˈnɔɪmən]TEXT B. THE FIRST COMPUTERS
In 1930 the first analog computer was built by American named Vannevar Bush. This device was used in World War II to help aim guns.
Many technical developments of electronic digital computers took place in the 1940s and 1950s. Mark I, the name given to the first digital computer, was completed in 1944. The man responsible for this invention was Professor Howard Aiken. This was the first machine that could figure out long lists of mathematical problems at a very fast rate.
In 1946 two engineers at the University of Pennsylvania, J.Eckert and J.Maushly, built their digital computer with vacuum tubes. They named their new invention ENIAC (the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator).
Another important achievement in developing computers came in 1947, when John von Neumann developed the idea of keeping instructions for the computer inside the computer's memory. The contribution of John von Neumann was particularly significant. As contrasted with Babbage's analytical engine, which was designed to store only data, von Neumann's machine, called the Electronic Discrete Variable Computer, or EDVAC, was able to store both data and instructions. He also contributed to the idea of storing data and instructions in a binary code that uses only ones and zeros. This simplified computer design. Thus computers use two conditions, high voltage, and low voltage, to translate the symbols by which we communicate into unique combinations of electrical pulses. We refer to these combinations as codes.
Neumann's stored program computer as well as other machines of that time were made possible by the invention of the vacuum tube that could control and amplify electronic signals. Early computers, using vacuum tubes, could perform computations in thousandths of seconds, called milliseconds, instead of seconds required by mechanical devices.
Exercise 12.Find the English equivalents of the following word combinations in the text.
Exercise 13.Answer the questions about the text.
1. When was the first analog computer built? 2. Where and how was that computer used? 3. When did the first digital computers appear? 4. Who was the inventor of the first digital computer? 5. What could that device do? 6. What is ENIAC? Decode the word. 7. What was J.Neumann's contribution into the development of computers? 8. What were the advantages of EDVAC in comparison with ENIAC? 9. What does binary code earn? 10. Due to what invention could the first digital computers be built?
Exercise 14.Fill in the gaps with the correct words.
1. The first digital computer could a lot of mathematical problems at a fast________. 2. Vannevar Bush built the first _________ computer in 1930. 3. Babbage's analytical engine was designed to data. 4. J. von Neumann invented a machine that was able to not only data but also ______________. 5. Neumann _______ the idea of storing data in a __________. 6. Computers use two conditions for _____ symbols. 7. The invention of ___________ made computers possible to control and ___________ electronic signals. 8. Due to __________ computers could perform ___________ much faster.
Exercise 15.Translate the following sentences and word combinations into Russian including:
A: The infinitive in function of adverbial modifiers.
1. Computers were designed to perform thousands of computations per second. 2. To make computers more reliable transistors were used. 3. They were applied to reduce computational time. 4. To integrate large numbers of circuit elements into a small chip, transistors should be reduced in size. 5. To use integrated circuit technology new computers were built. 6. Analytical engine was invented to store data.
B: The infinitive in function of attributes
The problem to be solved; the work to be finished; the cards to be punched; calculations to be performed; the machine to be shown at the exhibition; the device to be provided with the necessary facts; computers to be used for data processing; efforts to increase reliability; electronics to connect systems and subsystems; the speed of response to depend on the size of transistor; computers to perform thousands of calculations per second; vacuum tubes to control and amplify electric signals; these are circuits to use a large number of transistors; operations to be performed.
Exercise 16.Translate the texts below in written form by variants.
SOME FIRST COMPUTER MODELS
1. Babbage's AnalyticalEngine
In 1832, an English inventor and mathematician Charles Babbage was commissioned by the British government to develop a system for calculating the rise and fall of the tides.
Babbage designed a device and called it an analytical engine. It was the first programmable computer, complete with punched cards for data input. Babbage gave the engine the ability to perform different types of mathematical operations. The machine was not confined to simple addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division. It had its own "memory", due to which the machine could use different combinations and sequences of operations to suit the purposes of the operator.
The machine of his dream was never realized in his life. Yet Babbage's idea didn't die with him. Other scientists made at-tempts to build mechanical, general-purpose, stored-program computers throughout the next century. In 1941 a relay computer was built in Germany by Conrad Zuse. It was a major step toward the realization of Babbage's dream.
2. The Mark I Computer (1937-1944)
In 1944 in the United States, International Business Machines (IBM) built a machine in cooperation with scientists working at Harvard University under the direction of Prof. Aik-en. The machine, called Mark I Automatic Sequence-Controlled Calculator, was built to perform calculations for the Manhattan Project, which led to the development of atomic bomb. It was the largest electromechanical calculator ever built. It used over 3000 electrically actuated switches to control its operations. Although its operations were not controlled electronically, Aiken's machine is often classified as a computer because its instructions, which were entered by means of a punched paper tape, could be altered. The computer could create ballistic tables used by naval artillery.
The relay computer had its problems. Since relays are electromechanical devices, the switching contacts operate by means of electromagnets and springs. They are slow, very noisy and consume a lot of power.
3. The ABC (1939-1942)
The work on introducing electronics into the design of computers was going on.
The gadget that was the basis for the first computer revolution was the vacuum tube, an electronic device invented early in the twentieth century. The vacuum tube was ideal for use in computers. It had no mechanical moving parts. It switched flows of electrons off and on at rates far faster than possible with any mechanical device. It was relatively reliable, and operated hundreds of hours before failure. The first vacuum tube computer was built at Iowa University at about the same time as the Mark I. The computer, capable to perform thousands of related computations, was called ABC, the Atanasoff-Berry Computer, after Dr.John Atanasoff, a professor of physics and his assistant, Clifford Berry. It used 45 vacuum tubes for internal logic and capacitors for storage. From the ABC a number of vacuum-tube digital computers developed.
Soon the British developed a computer with vacuum tubes and used it to decode German messages.
Exercise 17.Exchange the variants and formulate the main idea of the texts above.
Exercise 18.Read and give the summary of the text below in a) Russian and in b) English .TEXT C. FOUR GENERATIONS OF COMPUTERS
The first vacuum tubes computers are referred to as first generation computers, and the approximate period of their use was from 1950 to 1959. UNIVAC 1 (Universal Automatic Computer) is an example of these computers which could perform thousands of calculations per second. Those devices were not only bulky, they were also unreliable. The thousands of vacuum tubes emitted large amounts of heat and burned out frequently.
The transistor, a smaller and more reliable successor to the vacuum tube, was invented in 1948. So-called second generation computers, which used large numbers of transistors were able to reduce computational time from milliseconds to microseconds, or millionths of seconds. Second-generation computers were smaller, faster and more reliable than first-generation computers.
Advances in electronics technology continued, and microelectronics made it possible to reduce the size of transistors and integrate large numbers of circuit elements into very small chips of silicon. The computers that were designed to use integrated circuit technology were called third generation computers, and the approximate time span of these machines was from 1960 to 1979. They could perform many data processing operations in nanoseconds, which are billionths of seconds.
Fourth generation computers have now arrived, and the integrated circuits that are being developed have been greatly reduced in size. This is due to microminiaturization, which means that the circuits are much smaller than before; as many as 100 tiny circuits are placed now on a single chip. A chip is a square or rectangular piece of silicon, usually from 1/10 to 1/4 inch, upon which several layers of an integrated circuit are etched or imprinted, after which the circuit is encapsulated in plastic or metal.
Exercise 19.TESTS: Choose the right variant.
1. British scientists invented a _______________ way of multiplying and dividing.
a) mechanical; b) electrical; c) optical
2. A new branch of mathematics, _____________ was invented in England and Germany independently.
a) mechanics; b) arithmetics; c) calculus
3. A young American clerk invented a means of coding _________ by punched cards.
a) letters; b) data; c) numbers
4. Soon punched cards were replaced by __________ terminals.
a) printer; b) scanner; c) keyboard
5. Mark I was the first computer that could solve _____________ mathematical problems.
a) analog; 1?) digital; c) mechanical
6. J. von Neumann simplified his computer by storing in formation in a ____________ code.
a) analytical; b) numerical; c) binary
7. Vacuum tubes could control and _____________ electric signals.
a) calculate; b) amplify; c) generate
8. The first generation computers were _________________ and often burned out.
a) uncomfortable; b) uncommunicative; c) unreliable
9. Computers of the second generation used __________ which reduced computational time greatly.
a) transistors; b) integrated circuits; c) vacuum tubes
10. Due to _____________ the development of the fourth generation computers became possible.
a) microelectronics; b) miniaturization; c) microminiaturization
Exercise 20.Check the transcription and the meaning in the dictionary and read the words listed below.
equipment, project, research, expertise, competition, user, successor
finance, clack, capitalize, threaten, switch, add
digital, current, heavy, peripheral, entire, previous, compatible
Exercise 21.Read and translate the collocations:
current name, fourth-rank computer producer, punch-card technology, key-punch machine, software and hardware, high-performance supercomputer market, fast selling model, room-sized mainframe computer
Exercise 23.Before reading the passage "The Rise of IBM" look through the previous text, highlighting the main stages of computer development. What facts are of interest to you?TEXT D. THE RISE OF IBM
IBM started in the late nineteenth century as manufacturer of electromechanical office tabulating equipment: the company took its current name in 1924. It financed one of the first digital computers, a clacking electromechanical monster known as Mark I, in 1943. IBM's first president Thomas Watson, Sr. commissioned the project, possibly as an expensive publicity stunt - research, advertising, and publicity-all came out of the same budget in those days. IBM did not immediately enter the computer business after the war and did not deliver its first computer until 1953. In 1954 IBM was only the fourth-ranked computer producer, well behind computer industry pioneer - Radio Corporation of America (RCA). That year IBM introduced the Model 650, the first computer to utilize punch-card technology.
Over the next decade, IBM made heavy investments in research and development under Thomas Watson, Jr. who took over from his father as IBM president in the mid-1950s. IBM capitalized on its manufacturing expertise to produce a full line of peripheral equipment: printers terminals, keypunch machines and card sorters that brought enormous profits for IBM and unbeatable competition for other computer manufacturers.
By the mid-1950s, IBM threatened to dominate the entire computer industry with its fast-selling Model 650. IBM also offered its computers for sale for the first time instead of renting them as it previously had insisted. This allowed leasing companies to buy computer equipment from IBM and then rent it to computer users at prices lower than IBM itself could charge.
These changes opened up competition in the computer services and equipment leasing markets.
In April 1964 IBM introduced the Model 360, the first computer that came in a variety of sizes and that was compatible with many different applications. Software and peripheral devices that worked on any one of the versions also worked on the others and were also "backward compatible" with earlier IBM models. Before, users had to start over with entirely new software, printers, terminals and so on, whenever they switched to a larger computer or added a new application. The Model 360 and its successor, the Model 370, led the company to dominance of both U.S. and international markets.
IBM's enormous success with room-sized mainframe computers eventually proved its undoing. It made unsuccessful entries into many of the specialized computer markets that later emerged. IBM abandoned the high-performance supercomputer market in the 1960s, and it entirely missed the minicomputer trend, pioneered in the early 1960s by Digital Equipment Corporation.
By the time IBM came out with its own models, minicomputers were about to be made obsolete by another new product that IBM ultimately failed to capitalize on the desktop-sized personal computer.
Exercise 24.True or false? Find sentences in the text that support your point of view.
1. IBM started in the late twentieth century as manufacturer of electromechanical
office tabulating equipment.
2. IBM took its current name in 1924.
3. IBM immediately entered the computer business after the war.
4. IBM always was the first-ranked computer producer.
5. By the mid 1950s, IBM threatened to dominate the entire computer industry with its fast-selling Model 650.
Exercise 25.Complete the sentences according to the information in the text.
1. IBM capitalized on its manufacturing expertise …
a) to sell a full line of peripheral equipment.
b) to produce a full line of peripheral equipment.
c) to rent peripheral equipment.
2. IBM also offered its computer …
a) for sale for the first time.
b) for improvement for the first time.
c) for expert for the first time.
3. The models 360 and 370 led the company …
a) to bankruptcy.
b) to dominance of both US and international markets.
c) to establishment of a new joint venture with Japanese companies.
4. By the time IBM came out with its own models, mini computers …
a) became very popular everywhere.
b) were sold especially abroad.
c) were about to be made obsolete by another new product.
Exercise 26.Check the transcription in the dictionary and read the words listed below.
issue, language, success, inclusion, equipment, phenomenon, wealth, multimedia, sound, capability, guidance
announce, cause, assemble, match, allow, worry
possible, colorful, immediate, convenient, remarkable, exclusive, proprietary
Exercise 27.Make nouns from the following verbs according to the model and translate them.
advertise, process, tabulate, found, hold, reason
use, develop, design, manufacture, assemble, program, invent, perform
Exercise 29.Remember the meaning of the terms that you will find in the text.
1. Spreadsheet package – a kind of computer programs that you calculate data on sale, taxis, profits and so on.
2. Floppy disk – a disk made of plastic material upon which data are stored on magnetic tracks.
3. Compatible – it is usually said about two computers when their programs can be run on both of them.
4. Peripheral devices, or peripherals are units connected to the central processing units (CPU); they are input devices, output devices and storage devices.
5. Input is the process of transferring data or program instruction into the computer.
6. Output is the result produced by a computer.
7. Storage is the process of keeping information in a special device in computer.
8. Software may be denoted as a set of programs or instructions executed by the computer.
9. Hardware is a computer machinery and equipment.
10. Digital computer is a type of computer that uses a binary system.
11. Chip is a tiny piece of silicon containing a complex electronic circuits.
12. Power supply – a system that is used to supply computer with electricity.
Exercise 30.Before reading the passage "The Rise of the Personal Computer" find in the text "The Rise of IBM" the chronological information on the models of computers produced by this company. Was the policy of IBM successful in the 1960s?TEXT E. THE RISE OF THE PERSONAL COMPUTER
The first personal computer, the Altair, was announced in Popular Electronics in its January 1975 issue. The Altair was also the first example of new computer hardware. It caused a sensation in the computer industry: those who wanted could have their own computers to play with at home, and a mighty computer industry soon began to grow.
A young computer hacker from Seattle by the name of William Gates, then a freshman at Harvard, sold the Altair developers a computer language that would run on their machine and that made it possible to program many advanced functions.
Emboldened by their success with Altair, Gates and his friend founded Microsoft Corporation, which has become the world's largest personal computer software company.
In 1976 Steve Jobs and Stephen Wozniak began assembling their own microcomputer - the Apple. The second iteration of their design, the Apple II, included such amenities as a keyboard, a built-in power supply, and a color monitor (all lacking in the first version) and was an immediate success following its introduction in 1977.
With the inclusion of a floppy disk drive that stored computer-readable data on a flexible plastic disc, the Apple II added a convenient way to read computer programs. This development truly gave birth to the phenomenon of personal computing.
In 1979 a remarkable program called VisiCalc appeared and made it possible for the personal computer to manipulate complex arrays of data. VisiCalc not only racked up impressive sales as a computer software package but also spurred adoption of the Apple II itself.
IBM made its entry in l981 with its Personal Computer (PC) which was tremendously successful, soon outstripping sales of Apple and other early personal computers. However, revenues from IBM's traditional computer business soon began a long-term decline. IBM was unable to dominate personal computers as it had the mainframe market, since IBM had exclusive rights neither to the central processing chip that was the "brains" of the personal computer nor to the disk operating system (DOS) software that made the hardware perform its basic functions.
The Intel Corporation, which made the chips, and Microsoft, which made the software, were free to sell their products to all comers. Microsoft developed a full line of software, such as word-processing and spreadsheet packages***, that rivaled IBM's own. Thus, it took only a matter of months to create "clones" of the IBM PC with technical specifications that matched the IBM machines and that would run all of the same software, at a much lower cost.
Meanwhile, Apple Computer began the transition to a multibillion-dollar corporation by maintaining control of its own destiny with a proprietary operating system and with a wealth of attractive and "user friendly" software applications, allowing it to charge premium places for its computers. Continuing the apple motif, it called its next successful computer the Mackintosh.
Apple also specialized in the development of multimedia computers with advanced sound and moving image display capabilities. Because Apple produced only personal computers, it could focus its attention on that market, while IBM had to worry about protecting its mainframe business.
Microsoft emerged as a major force in the personal computer industry as the profits shifted from the hardware to the software end of the industry. Under the continuing guidance of William Gates, Microsoft had become a multibillion-dollar corporation by the early 1990s. Its Windows operating system outclassed IBM's own efforts to update DOS and had an easy-to-use interface not unlike Apple's own.
Microsoft produced a full range of software packages that were among the leaders in virtually all of the most popular produced categories.
Exercise 31.Answer the questions.
1. Which computer-market trend was entirely lost for IBM? Why did IBM fail its entry into the PC market?
2. What features made IBM a pioneer in computer industry development?
3. What became the basis of the Microsoft production?
4. What did you learn about Apple Corporation?
5. How was the computer market divided between IBM, Microsoft and Apple Corporation finally?
Exercise 32.Look at the two similar sentences. Which one is true? What makes the second sentence false?
1. It was desktop-sized personal computers that replaced the minicomputer trend.
2. One of these computers was called Apple and it was announced in 1975.
3. Those who wanted could have now their own computer for business purposes at home.
4. A computer industry so mighty before began to fail.
5. The Altair developers bought from William Gates a computer language that could run on their machine.
1. It was room-sized mainframe computers that replaced the minicomputer trend.
2. One of these computers was called Altair and it was announced in 1975.
3. Those who wanted could have now their own computer to play at home.
4. A computer industry began to grow.
5. The Altair developers bought from Microsoft Corporation a computer language that could run on their machine.
Exercise 33.Arrange the sentences in their logical sequence.
1. But its current name the company took only in 1924.
2. It used a punch-card technology and electrical circuit to advance the mechanical counter.
3. These successful investments brought enormous profits for IBM.
4. The next machine to be introduced into the market was Model 650 initializing punch-card technology.
5. This invention became the foundation on which IBM was built.
6. The digital electromechanical computer Mark I was one of the first to be financed by IBM in 1943.
7. A new tabulating machine invented by Herman Hollerith was used for the US Census of 1890.
8. Later on, IBM made heavy investments in producing peripheral equipment, printers, terminals, key-punch machines and card sorters.
Exercise 34.Say what you have learnt about the development of the computer industry. Begin your story with the phrases listed below.
Now it is widely known that…;
The new computer caused the sensation because…;
In order to perform the new computer…
Exercise 35.Fill in the gaps with prepositionsto, with, into, on, from, off, over, at, of, forif necessary.
1. The developers conceived … a new model … machine.
2. The investors insisted … development … a new trend … computers.
3. The customers bought … the company new computers.
4. The company left their minicomputers … sale.
5. The computer helped perform a set … operations.
6. Software and peripherals are compatible … almost all modern computers.
7. Several applicants argue … the right to head the company.
8. The IBM Corporation capitalized … producing peripheral equipment.
9. We didn't forget the names … the scientists who have contributed … R&D.
10. Several devices aim … increasing the calculating speed.
11. We bought our computer … one of the shops of our city.
12. The firm used the money to buy … the cable television company.GRAMMAR
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