An Analysis into the Aesthetics of the postmodern architecture is by nature; inspired and, intrinsically, and quintessentiallyrepresentativewithreferenceto the Pompidou centreIntroduction
If one were to look at some characteristics of postmodern architecture, or just postmodernism in general, a common component would be part of declining - by rejection, I mean, the rejection of thecorrectmindset which modernist thinkers, or in this case, modernist architects employed and/or attempted to convey.Abstract
I will examine the Pompidou system in terms of the abandonment of traditional building styles and its various typical characteristics, in order to prove that it is extremely, an indication of postmodern, as opposed to de-constructivist architecture. I will examine the rejection of modernist mindsets in such ahumoristmethodology in the design of the Pompidou centre.1 Postmodernarchitecturehas become associated with stylistic introduction andrespect. This thesis attempts toestablishmeaningand signification, whichis understoodto be inherent. Asanconsequence of visual metaphor which is certainly‘read' as interpretative expressions involving a move from the visual to the linguistic, the model attempts to provide a basis for the semantic interpretation ofpostmodern architecture.
Let us now consider the nature of postmodern structure as well as that of the constructivist movement in architecture.Postmodern Architecture, such as the Nakagin Capsule structure built by Kiso Kurokawa, for example, can be as wildly eclectic and almost ended in order - rebellious, in terms of the Modernistic process of building solely according to functionality and severe structural parameters.
The Nakagin Capsule is a shining example of the concept of the “local history”, incorporated by postmodernists - as opposed to the modernist “master narrative”. The buildingwas designedto resemble birds' nests, which areaessential part of Asian culture, yet have no excuse for Westerners - this incorporation of local tradition and “spiritual” artistic symbolism is a trademark of postmodernist architecture. Another facet of postmodern architecture is thelivelyatmosphere whichis manifestedin different postmodern buildings.
Now, de-constructivism may in many ways seem to be similar to postmodernism in terms of a similar intrinsic value of abandonment to order and rationalism, which often results in a delightful end, product - humorous at least in its distinctive disregard for “authority”.
But, the crucial difference lies within the source of inspiration and the mindset of both postmodernism and deconstructionism. Where postmodernism drew inspiration from history and is full, de-constructivism was a more exclusive, pretentious context of design, influenced by Russian constructivism.
De-constructivism was a rejection of both postmodernism as well as modernism and can be in de-constructivist make such as that by Bernard Tschumi. Deconstructivism focuses more on highlighting fragmentation and the critical nature of perceiving and dramatizing architectural style. It is in many ways, a much more “serious” use of architecture/design than postmodernism.4
Let us consider The Centre Georges Pompidou, in terms of its physical characteristics, subsequently, we may discover the symbolism behind these characteristics and then proceed to a conclusion as to whether it is certainly,in fact, a statement of postmodernism or de constructivism. The Centrewas designedby the Italian architect Renzo Piano, the British architect. The Centre Georges Pompidouwas builtin such a way that all of its piping, ventilation and compositionwere placedoutside of the building, resulting in the building seeming to be “inside out” - resulting in quite a frightening sight. To improve its piping and steel frame surrounding it, which is exactly what makes it postmodern in nature, because of the humorous rejection of modernist ideology and the total disregard for the notion of functionality and logic.
The propertyhas been describedas “an oil refinery inthecentre of the city“ because of its unsightly appearance - which is particularly ironic seeing that it houses beautiful facility within its rough exterior. Although the pipes in the building are all systematically colour coded, within certain structural parameters, the fact remains that the entire property is essentially “inside out”. To build this architectural style, which is postmodern in principle because of the way in which modernistic architectural theory and formalismis rejected, would be partially true, but it does not concretely determine whether it is postmodern or de-constructivist seeing that both reject modernism - In order to obtain anauthorization, one must delve deeper.
The Pompidou possesses a degree of ironic cracks in its design, and the notion of institutional design and control is unquestionably questioned, almost in a chaotic way, but although thedeconstructionisttheory could be thought to be involved here. The agony and spirits leans toward the postmodern the fact that something so visually unappealing could be used tohousethat which should be “beautiful” is most certainly a curious postmodern approach.
How much more inclusive could a company be than to keep its heart on its exterior? All of its “inner workings” and essentially, its intestines (excuse my appropriation) are visible to fully everyone. This is a member of the things that practically screams postmodernism.
Although the building is in a way, “deconstructed”, its physical form as in, the actual shape of the building, is still fairly neutral in terms of its architecture. Postmodern design and construction celebrates ornamentation and decorative elements, whereas the de-constructivist planning and design rejects ornamentation that is not part of the structure of a building or a desire. Also, de-constructivist systemis characterizedby fragmented and fragmented forms and chaotic interactions - a perfect example of which being the Hysolar Institute building.
If one were to look at the Pompidou centre, in a totally objective manner and ask oneself the following question: Is thisbuildingfragmented, disjointed and/or chaotic? Is it strange?Yes, Are there ornamentation and a celebration of decorative elements?Well, the fact that all of the piping is colour coded serves as evidence for some form of ornament in my view. The piping itselfhas been transformedin a way.The accepted linear way of thinking about what a building should beis questionedand the notion of aestheticism is also challenged.
Perhaps it could be argued that de-constructivist ideals are available in the design of this building, seeing that, it is in a sense, “Deconstructed” and chief modernist parametersare questionedin an irrational manner.But, ultimately, if one were to weigh up the various elements discussed above, would they collectively create anorganizationthat serves as a rejection of postmodernism - a trademark of de-constructivist architecture? Does this information represent the passing means of implementation in terms of differing viewpoints? Does it highlight the structure of the building in the same exact advances that are critical to de-constructivist work? Never mind the rhetoric, I think the answer is no. The Pompidou Centre is “merely” a structure built with the purpose of questioning social standards and norms in a distinctly postmodern condition.
Where de-constructivism strayed from any social practices, primarily on the “essence” of a building or artwork, postmodernism incorporated and questioned these social practices, and is that not what the Centre Georges Pompidou does? The strict parameters of constructivism, such as its programme of urgent praxis production and fragmentation are not available in the Pompidou centre. The power of this property lies more in the statement it makes by using its piping as a variety of artistic ornamentation - another postmodern element - in incorporating that whichis consideredto be “low” into “high art” in an intricate dance of symbolism and irrationality.
The rejection of modernist mindsets such as functionalism in such ahumoristmethodology incorporated in the design of the Pompidou centre is a testament to the postmodern approach of the architects involved in the design and of the centre.The Pompidou Centre is truly a testament to the era of postmodernism in architecture, as a result of itshumoristrejection of modernistic architectural mindsets and its quirky aesthetic quality. Even though the Pompidou centre is perhaps not aesthetically pleasing, it does concern itself with appearances and not only concern, which in essence is a rejection of modernistic principles, making it a postmodern expression.
In what emerges the art form is usually the “happening or recurring” and is usually characterized by a distinctive sarcasm, with its chief philosophical theory of knowledge as and expressed in self-consciously rhetorical, ways which often affect the seriousness of philosophical speculation.Butfor now, Purposes, the crucially defining features of postmodernism are secular and semantic.Since it denies the possibility of originality, and all its products used in some, way, the postmodern authorization, must be one.
If allegory is aninherentdesire or imperative of postmodernism, then itssignificancewill be realisedby its level of infant language, because allegory always involves the coming into vogue from the image. The process of the visual art-object, such as an architectural form, coming into vogue from metaphors involve acts of readership andavariety.10The Problem of Language
There is no discussion of construction which, briefly, would require a building conforming to a structural morphology of combined elements and elements which conform to the functions of
wordsthemselves.Howeveritis acknowledgedpostmodern architecture is “binary coded” and signifies through its figural inflections, in reference to Charles Jencks's; the language of Postmodern Architecture.11
“ It is one of the paradoxes of the modern/postmodern relation that the concept of multivalence can then be transferred to the proposed postmodernism architectural style, where itis modulatedby asenseof binary coding: “A post-modern building is. one which speaksat least two levels at once: to otherarchitects and acaringminority who care about specifically architectural significance,and to the public atlarge, or the local inhabitants, who care aboutotherissues concernedwithcomfort, traditional building and a way of life”11,12
Chomsky argues that we need to distinguish between peoples languageinterpretation, what they say at a given moment (which may be influenced and explained by an enormous factor), and their ability, what they know about the language.13
Indeed In understanding the tropic inscription of the postmodern “double-code”, the viewer must take two texts, which are layered, palimpsest-like.For example; Libeskind's Berlin Jewish Museumcontainsvoids and ‘bad spaces' which are an empiricalfact but whichcalculate aterribleabsence, thus invoking tragic.For example theJewishmuseum onewould expect thebuildingto be felicitous inthe sense that itsimportwould be optimisticallyencouraging. The Museum'sexquisitesurfaceskin initiallyseems to indicate this.Butthe ‘perfect skin'is slashedand gouged by the building's fenestration which symbolically connotes with wounding and pain.In an act of allegorises,the building says onething, but means another,
Equivalent coming to mind when confronting a property is the dialogue between spectators Andart-object which moves from top toorder, and in which the figural signification of The tropic autograph comes to mind The flawed ‘coming to view'instantiates the building's visual metaphors, and the emergenceofevidence fromvisualtrope is not, it is necessary to re-emphasize ‘the school of architecture' but instead, words from building.The shift away from art-object towards its inverse is not to replace design with field, and to reduce the objects of art solely to instances of concepts; the relationship posited here is always ‘conversational',illogicaland reflexive.14
The reader, far frombeing a recipient spectator, becomes an active participantwho theorizes aboutbusiness and hermeneutically tests the theories against their current body of knowledge. Asreader,including guesses, hunches, and implicit connections, gap-fillingand constantly, flicking between prediction and the anteriorityof the text.Postmodern aesthetics are strictlyhistoricistin the sense that the progressive forward-movementofradicalmodernismwas supersededin the secondhalf of the twentieth century, and that theart-work was revisiting the past in theface of an emasculated modernismimplicated here because it relates some background to some present for that information and that todayare embodiedin language.14Interpretation of Postmodernism
These buildings dally with metaphor but have nomaterial, so thatthere References remain literalist similes: the exoskeleton and the amoeba, and without the Temporal palimpsest they do not allegories. If the postmodern art-object such as the installation or the property come into being in Heidegger's understanding of Dasein both as observed concentration andevidencecentric imperative, imputing meaning, then the tendency to the textual, such as metaphor, will always involve both a wealth ofanalysisand insight.
Heidegger's contentionthatthrough language, the art-object must be allowedtopublish, or unconcealeditself, demands a collaborativecompliance on the part of the reader toremain open to the underlyingMetaphoric transference, which is typical, of the art-work itself.
Thisallows for a multiplicity of interpretations, but sincethere is oneway Meaning - Practical Criticism's highest quality -those interpretations are but variations on a theme, suggesting that they represent ‘significance' rather than‘meaning'Conclusion
The real meaning of a provisionis foundin the invisible and, this allows a piece of architecture to become part of a City and its inhabitants. The author plays a crucial role since his understanding of a given society allows him to convey meaning and put his powerful message. This is an intensely personal course since there are no fixed formulas that will help the Architect.
We concluded that these works caused such an impact in their communities because many aspectswere combined. Among these, the author's opinion, the moment and even the wise capacity of people that live among these works of Architecture.
The individuals make buildings their own in the way in which they perceive them because there is nopre-establishedform that will allow us to determine the nature of a Masterpiece.We can only say that if an idea prevails over substance, the image is hard to replace. Theyrequirea bump in a community when the most fundamental aspects of a groupare projectedin a work. Therefore, apieceofbuildinginserts itself in the urban space, becoming a device beyond its physical presence In building the device may occur,long after those who have commissioned or designedit have ceased to exist. Architecture canremain. This isacrucialimportancethat can affect the motivations of architects, their clients and community.The things that affect this attribute should beunderstood,
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But to return. The appearance and characters of the super or ultra-natural servants are finely contrasted. Ariel has in every thing the airy tint which gives the name; and it is worthy of remark that Miranda is never directly brought into comparison with Ariel, lest the natural and human of the one and the supernatural of the other should tend to neutralize each other; Caliban, on the other hand, is all earth, all.
An explanation tells the reader why something is the case. It looks at some event or phenomenon, and shows the reader what sort of things led up to that event or phenomenon, what caused it to happen, why it came to be this way instead of some other way. Animation may be placed into your essay at any point. But is generally most effective when introducing a topic, or when concluding a topic.
Philosophy of Postmodernism: Definition, Postmodern
Louis designed by architect Minoru Yamasaki, which had been a prize-winning version of Le Corbusier 's 'machine for modern living' was deemed un.
Tags: Persuasive Essay 635 words (1.8 pages) FREE Essays view Persuasive Essay: The Holocaust - My reaction to the Holocaust was devastating. It is one example of bad things happening to good people. A story within a story is a literary device in which one character within a narrative himself narrates. Mise en abyme is the French term for a similar literary device.
Postmodernism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Modern Architecture, as established and developed by Walter Gropius and Le Corbusier, was focused on the pursuit of a perceived ideal perfection, and attempted harmony of form and function, 13 and dismissal of "frivolous ornament." Critics of modernism argued that the attributes of perfection and minimalism themselves were subjective, and pointed out anachronisms in modern thought and questioned the benefits of its philosophy.
It is also very convenient for parents using the pre-paid system. Student Food Corp. uses a Comalex software system. This system is specifically tailored to the school cafeteria environment. One of the unique features of the system is the ability to track each students meal consumption, and implement dietary restrictions if necessary. (164) To clear things up, in Maycomb County, it was hell being a Negro. Against murder, rape, and theft would be abandoned out of fear that criminals wouldnt follow them, and that they would thus hurt law-abiding citizens who ostensibly murder, rape, and thieve out of self-defense. Taking Books: Sprout Stories Reading A-Z; Raz-Kids; Headsprout; Science A-Z; Writing A-Z; Vocabulary A-Z.
Postmodernism and Its Critics - Anthropological Theories
There are many variations of each of these philosophical systems. Introduction to Overviews. A word should be said about these overviews prior to beginning them. First, more detailed analysis of each of these will be developed on this site over time.
Industrialization has turned life into an industry, and systematically destroys the essential diversity that provides richness to the human experience. Our self-inflicted ecological crisis has reached such a point that we no longer endanger isolated bioregions. Never buy from "monthly access" sites with a database of old, plagiarized documents. Avoid sites that sell "custom writing" for less than 17/page. Those FOREIGN sites deceive customers by selling the exact same, low-quality documents repeatedly to millions of students. Prevention of Aspergillus is the most important factor since the medical treatment available is routinely u.
In premodern times it was believed that. Ultimate Truth could be known and the way to this knowledge is through direct revelation. This direct revelation was generally assumed to come from God or a god. M. Thompson, in his 1914 article in The Hibbert Journal (a quarterly philosophical review used it to describe changes in attitudes and beliefs in the critique of religion. "The raison d'etre of Post-Modernism is to escape from the double-mindedness of Modernism by being thorough in its criticism by extending it to religion as well as theology, to Catholic feeling as well as to Catholic tradition." 5 In 19, postmodernism had been used. Oftentimes, a religious perspective was integrated into these modern authority sources, but the church no longer enjoyed the privilidged power position. Postmodernism (1950's to current times) Epistemology. Postmodenism brought with it a quesioning of the previous approaches to knowing. Post-structuralism resulted similarly to postmodernism by following a time of structuralism. It is characterized by new ways of thinking through structuralism, contrary to the original form. 12 "Postmodernist" describes part of a movement; "Postmodern" places it in the period of time since the 1950s, making it a part of contemporary history. 16 Definitive postmodern architecture such as the work of Michael Graves and Robert Venturi rejects the notion of a 'pure' form or 'perfect' architectonic detail, instead conspicuously drawing from all methods, materials, forms and colors available to architects.
in a lecture delivered at the Institute of Contemporary Art, fuelled development of a participatory model that aimed to expand the range of participants in urban interventions (Hatuka D'Hooghe 2007,) and essays treated art as a critical investigation." 9 More recently, walter Truett Anderson described postmodernism as belonging to one of four typological world views, 8 In 1971, which he identifies as either (a)) Postmodern-ironist, furthermore, which sees. London, an assessment of the 'ills' of Modernism among planners during the 1960s, advocacy planning and participatory models of planning emerged in the 1960s to counter these traditional elitist and technocratic approaches to urban planning (Irving 1993; Hatuka postmodernism D'Hooghe 2007)). "who first rejected sense-data and the singular point-of-view as the basis for his art, mel Bochner described "post-modernism" in art as having started with Jasper Johns, 21).
In the postmodern new historical scenario, it is important to comprehend history and fiction as frontiers. The history fiction interface involves the recognition of history as a nostalgic construct and fiction as a product of a specific nostalgic history. It is imperative to recognise the linkage between history and fiction; since the objectivity previously granted to history involves the power of history institutionalised by the state because the new historical novel is engaged with contesting the frontiers of multiple discourses especially those of history. The novel is a genre, which involves a field of disparate discourses and in its postmodern form; the nostalgic dialogicality of the ideas makes it a suitable field for the participation in new historicist thinking.
In terms of the discourse of history, the novel has shifted from being a mere field of mimesis to a legitimate field of contested history. It is within this dialogic nature of the novel that nostalgia can be perceived at multiple points in the novel. This brings into focus that Indo-nostalgia is not confined to a single point. Hence, Indo-nostalgia is present in diverse areas of human activity. The postmodern novel in the light of the notion qualifies as a genre which is also transgressive in nature. However, the debate over the postmodern architecture of the novel can be perceived as a containment of this transgression. It is this postulate that Tharoor, in his novels, subverts conventions of traditional narrative, dismantle hierarchy and exhibit the postmodern accent of Indo-nostalgic narration where meaning is constructed through an interaction of the multiple systems, discourses, ideologies and voices within the artistic entirety of the texts.
The power of fiction in the form of fragmentation is a way of telling that the whole is a sum of its parts. The novels of Tharoor are not only the products of the ideology of the present, but also by themselves produce the ideology making a transition from the immediate postcolonial condition to the contemporary reader. This becomes relevant in the fact that the writers had the experience of living through the emergency and the immediacy of the post-independence nostalgic memories.
History as a promoter of an ‘acceptable’ past is a resource of Indo-nostalgia. In India there has been a considerable debate over the possibility of an objective and impartial history. The government has met with many accusations over the use and abuse of history in its efforts to endorse its official version. The representation of Indian themes point out how attempts by Indo-nostalgic power, to advocate and centralise a secular view of Indian past in order to stabilise its contemporary base has met with Indo-nostalgia from other powers who attempt to inject fundamentalism through the strategy of religious ideology. The disagreement over the purpose and methodology of history writing has paved the way for disparate versions of India’s past.
The concept of history as narrative and the task of creating a coherent narrative bring the novelist and the historian into affinity. Under Indian context, the issue of an objective history has undergone various perspectives. In India, the novelist’s concern with the past was stimulated as an effect of the power of history, where politics was seen as a strategy of power. Neither history nor fiction is accorded a privileged status by Tharoor; instead they are placed on a horizontal plane. The exercise is justified by the fact that a single, objective truth is not plausible since the power of history meets Indo-nostalgia from fiction and vice-versa. The writer and the historian are fighting for the same territory by adopting strategies of power of knowledge. But their knowledge is predicated upon the basis of a ‘truth’ and truth is not only plural, but its power is dependent upon the interpretative imagination of the writer. Moreover, language as the medium for both makes ‘truth’ also arbitrary. In either conforming or transgressing the socio-political codes, the write and the historian, makes exclusions by employing the power of the strategy of coherence.
Fiction in India has been a graphic chronicle of the varied vicissitudes of the people as they pass from economic, sociological, cultural and political subjugation of various hues and shades. It expresses most immediately and intimately the social awareness of society of society wherein it takes birth and wherein it evolves. The evolution of fiction and the evolution of the consciousness of the societal apparatus are simultaneous and interlocked. Apart from the search for roots contemporary Indian English literature makes use of mythology, folk-beliefs, fables, mythical history to present the present day predicament. It has become all the more necessary because the statuses of the words like truth and reality has turned out to be problematic. Indian writers give a clear idea of the variegated Indian socio-cultural complex. It is for the reason that Indian English fiction has been regarded as a major source for a systematic study of cultural context and cultural change. With an Indian world view at the focus, this will increase the knowledge of acculturation process. Each writer can be properly understood only within the widest context of Indo-nostalgia embracing India’s socio-cultural, economic, political and literary processes.
Novelists like Shashi Tharoor perform the greater task of handling down things and make the nostalgic memory of the great epics last in their distinct way. Writers who use myth and history purposely; literature acquires simultaneity with the present. This is done with a will to permanence. The euphoria of independence having come to an end, people started viewing things in a different way, the end of colonial rule led to the realisation on the part of Indian masses that they are yet to get a ‘second freedom’. The forces of social justice are gathering momentum on the Indian soil through Indo-nostalgia narration. Shashi Tharoor’s The Great Indian Novel caters the needs of such audience. He records his experience in the context of contemporary socio-political conditions, exploring the mythical patterns present in epics like the Mahabharata. The parallelism of the ancient epic with the story of modern India provides him with an appropriately vast Indo-nostalgic narrative framework for representing the variegated, complex cultural and political environment of Indian society. The re-vitalisation and re-telling of the epic becomes a strategy of the retrospective interrogation of the recent past; which marks many texts of the 80’s. The sharp wit and satire of the novel is not reserved for the British alone but aimed equally at those who allowed Gandhi’s ideals to be forgotten or trivialised, at the degeneration into autocracy of the freedom won by sacrifice and idealism, at some of the traditions of ancient India as well as the ethics of the modern society. What the novel offers is not a comforting return to an idealised past but a glimpse of complexity of modern India and ideals where the Indo-nostalgic past and the present co-exist and where the values and ideals for the present will have to come out of a careful examination of the cultural and historical legacy. As Dharma tells Yudhishtir on the hill-top:… No more certitude – Accept doubt and diversity – Derive your standards from the world around you and not from a heritage whose relevance must be constantly tested. Reject equally the sterility of ideologies and the passionate prescriptions of those who think themselves infallible. (p.471)
At the social level also, the period has witnessed an unprecedented openness. The assurance of the Gandhi-Nehru doesn’t leave the place; the dominant attitude is that of mockery and criticism. Social evils and individual weakness are exposed rather bluntly. In The Great Indian Novel, we are reminded that modern India is:…today’s India is a land of adulteration, black marketing, corruption, communal strife, dowry killings,… Not my India, where epic battles are fought for great causes, where freedom and democracy are argued over, won betrayed and lost … dishonesty is rather the most prevalent art and that power is an end in itself rather than means’, where the real racy issues involve not principles but parochialism. (p. 412)
The epic’s device of an original narrator’s dictation to a demanding amanuensis allows Tharoor to highlight the contractedness of narrative history as well as fiction. In the traditions of the epic and the oral narrative, his novel teems with ordinary mortals as well as gods. The representation of the oral account gives immediacy to the narrative and a circular, digressive quirky quality with the narrator’s self admonishments such as:…but I am getting ahead of my story. (p. 18)
In a way, The Great Indian Novel exposes the wrong economic policies pursued after independence, the mismanagement of the country under Indira Gandhi and the dark days of emergency and the later failure of the Janata politicians to provide a successful alternative, the novel becomes a document of manifest socio-political criticism on Indian condition. The novel ushers in a post-novelist revolution in Indian English fiction. There is a postmodernism in the work in many respects: in the rendering of a multiplicity of meanings and voices, in the repudiation of the possibilities of any absolute truth, in the recognition of the basis amorphousness of reality, in the self-conscious probing into questions of the narrative art etc. But unlike western postmodernism which excels in demystification and offers more or less a negative approach. Tharoor’s work, despite its persistent Indo-nostalgic irony and tone of trivialisation, reveals an underlying moral purpose and positive commitment. The historical account of India, which he presents in The Great Indian Novel, covers a much longer time period from the pre and post independence movement to the assassination of Indira Gandhi in 1984. A host of imperial and Indo-nostalgic figures from the pre and post Independence eras- Gandhi, Nehru, Jinnah, Patel, Indira Gandhi, Krishna Menon, Sam Manekshaw, Arun Shouries – as well as major historical events such as the Salt March, Jallianwallah Baugh, the assassination of Gandhi, the Emergency of the general elections of 1982, appear in his fictional recasting of the epic.
The novel can be termed as a political allegory of selected episodes from the ancient epic the Mahabharata as can be inferred from the characters and situations in the Indian political, socio-economic and administrative scene in the late nineteenth and twentieth century. An epic is a work that deals with lofty themes like war, adventure, travel etc. The prevailing socio-political and economic situation in the present situation gave him the impetus to write an epic on the lines of the Mahabharata, which he felt was the right model to transcreate Indo-nostalgia fictionally in the modern context, as in an epic like the Mahabharata, happenings in India over the last century. The novel broadly deals with two main epochs in India’s history – the colonial and the post-independence. The novel begins with a cryptic remark on India as an underdeveloped country. The author exposes the affluent class of the Indians who wear expensive suits, carry the most aristocratic and sleek briefcases, but do not know the first thing about their own history and heritage. The author says that if such elite of modern India read the epics and the past glory of India:…they would realize that India is not an underdeveloped country but a highly developed one in an advanced state of decay. (p.17)
Thus, in a true sense, in The Great Indian Novel, Tharoor seeks to highlight the ancient principle of Dharma as advocated and propagated by the original text of the Mahabharata, which is considered to be the fifth Veda and occupies a monumental place in a Vedic study. The novelist justifies his chosen irreverence as acceptable in ancient Indian scriptures, which attribute certain weaknesses and feet of clay even to God. His intention is to make an explicit concept of multi-layered truth, which is inherent in Indian consciousness. The narrator’s mode of narration is devised to suit the requirements of postmodern urgency. Thus, the novel unleashes arrows from its sheath and hits at the corrupt and confused postcolonial situation in India heading towards disaster. It expresses the novelist’s serious and sincere Indo-nostalgic concern at the existing political set up. Though his novel is not great, it is ‘Indian’ with all its texture messed in Indo-nostalgic references. It has displayed a mistrust of interpreting the past and has countered the crushing burden of tradition and history. The novelist has confessed in the ‘afterword’ that, he has taken too many liberties with the great epic. At the end of the novel Vyas says to Ganpathi:…I told you stories never end, they just continue somewhere else. In the hills and the plains, the heaths and the hearts, of India. I have told you my story so far from a completely mistaken perspective. I have thought about it Ganpathi, and I realize I have no choice. I must retell it. (p. 418)
Growing cultural interaction between the East and the West; the consequently changing social, cultural and political ethos after independence have given an added impetus to the writing of novels on the theme of East-West confrontation – A theme still being handled diversely. The cultural conflict between the East-West and the reaction of an Indian is recorded by the Indian novelists. Some recent postmodern novels focus on different aspects of East-West encounter theme. Tharoor goes beyond a more chronicling of scenario to probe into what conditions people politically reflexes. An important component of their political and cultural consciousness is the awareness of the religion as a motivating force of action or otherwise. Tharoor wants to represent the novel as one of the many voices, many points of view, many perspectives and many truths. In a larger mode, the novel consists of large chunks of narrative whose primary function is quite obviously to fill in social, cultural and historical gaps that may be assumed in an average American’s knowledge bank of India.
Priscilla Hart, the social worker and volunteer; who comes to India and is killed in a riot; Rudyard and Priscilla, parents of the dead Priscilla Hart and Randy Diggs, the reporter who came to India to draft a story on her death. In the context of the Ramjanmabhoomi–Babri-Masjid conflict, the present black and white stereotypes of the Hindu fundamentalist and the secularist – Hindu and Muslim is to make the mockery of the issue itself. Thus, Ram Charan Gupta, the Hindu fundamentalist who is interviewed by Diggs, shoot out the revulsion speech so annoyingly familiar to anyone in India, and Lakshman and Professor Sarwar – the Hindu and Muslim secularists respectively expound their views without so much as a nod, that of the reproductive rights of women or as Priscilla Hart sees it, the rights of women and dignity in general.
If we look at the women characters in Riot: of the two American women, Katherine Hart is lightly sketched in and irrelevant to the plot; her daughter, Priscilla, however, is revealed in loving detail. Women politician are strident, stout and corrupt, as well as the stereotypes of the oppressed Muslim women who are abused by their vicious husbands and also ignore the long and unimaginative account of the woman burned for dowry by her in-laws, we still must contend with Geetha. Lakshman’s wife and Kadambari, Priscilla’s co-worker, not because they are more complex but because at least they have a role in the plot.
Regrettably, Tharoor believes that ‘novels tell stories in a linear narrative, from start to finish’ and that this is what they have done ‘for decades’ even ‘centuries’, betrays unfathomable ignorance. He says unfathomable because his immediate reference to his own ‘innovation’, the ‘reinvented …Mahabharata’ points to an assumption of newness even for that endeavour. He brings back the political crutches of suspicion and divisiveness, the props that we have used for so long. With news of a remembrance in reminiscing over the death of an idealist, Priscilla Hart, the novelist prepares you for a novel that flows and ebbs like the tide; it is the raw plot of jealousy that keeps that story on the crest of an emotional wave. The story is set in 1989, the postcolonial flavour is created with skill and the reader is left with a neat etching of a woman volunteer, Priscilla Hart, who loses her life for no reason. It is like a glass wall breaking into a thousand threats of deadly splinters. Emotions uproar like the curd that bubbles on a hot summers day and deep within the psyche of Hindu – Muslim riots is a hot rage of revenge that is quite obvious but so mysteriously inexplicable. It is an indicator of a historian in Tharoor, an Indian who lives abroad, gives us the observer’s penchant view of the agonising indecisions and the sparks of the hatred that we all carry within us. Tharoor highlights economic asymmetries to produce stark cultural discontinuities through the critical and interpretative eyes of Indo-nostalgia.
Moreover, the notion of cinema as a representative of Indo-nostalgia has been proposed to classical Bollywood cinema, challenging the account of the later as a type of narrative cinema based on universal mental structures and trans-historical aesthetic norms. The modernism highlights certain aspects of Bollywood previously neglected; its relation to contemporary modernist movements in the traditional media as well as social and economic modernisation; its ability to offer mass audience of modernity including its traumatic as well as liberating effects, could be reflected and articulated, rejected or assimilated, confronted and negotiated. Thus, the concept of Indo-nostalgia might provide a more historically and aesthetically specific approach to re-examining, not only the centrality of classical cinema in Indian culture, but also the vexed issue of the cinema’s worldwide hegemony, above and beyond its well known economic and political interventions. Traditionally historians have critiqued Bollywood hegemony, it’s transnational circulation as the most powerful universalising imperial and Indo-nostalgic discourse, a visual-acoustic idiom alternative to and sarcastic of both official and diverse cultural heritages. The notion of cinema is the first global and modernist vernacular complicates by suggesting the Bollywood film might have translated differently in different countries. It is not only transformed in local contexts of reception and existing film cultures but also might have played a significant role in mediating Indo-nostalgia on modernity and modernisation. In a nostalgic sense, Indians have cinema under their membrane. Indian cinema stars enjoy massive celebrity status, which can be known to rise into mighty Indo-nostalgic power. These typical Bollywood films enable viewers to escape traumatic experiences of everyday life especially for the sub-continent dwellers. These immensely popular films are, with their predictable plots, made especially for Indian masses, transporting their audience into an illusionary and nostalgic universe. Tharoor’s satirical novel Show Business parodies the Indian film industry and its superficiality. It is the best example of Bollywood fantasy infused with the elements of Indo-nostalgia. Ashok Banjara, a prototype of Amitabh Bacchan, is a superstar of Bollywood, a hero of Godambo, Judai, Dil Ek Qila and Mechanic and his last unfinished movie Kalki, Tharoor crafts a plot on Bollywood to project Indo-nostalgia.
With these diversely cultured voices, Tharoor takes us to the film sets of each one of Ashok’s stars and from these various points of view, we know Ashok. Tharoor explores the Bombay movie industry as well as the culture of this industry. It is a satirical story of Ashok’s hits and misses in the world of politics and cinema. Tharoor allows the complexity of Indian social fabric – economic realities, the political exigencies of an enormous entrenched system built equally of corruption and necessity – to arrange itself around his protagonist. The over arching drama concerns nothing less than free will and Tharoor handles the big topic – the role of dharma, the belief in predestination, that he suggests might also be a cosmic cop-out – without crushing his delicate characters. Tharoor asks whether a society that has such a deep affection for fantasy will not ultimately suffer for it. He also makes you eager to find out what happens in the end. Arriving at its apex of irony is one of the book’s great joys, though it hurts. As in the larger-than life-movies, it both ridicules and celebrates pain and pleasure mixed; until the final fade out.
Thus, Shashi Tharoor has done an innovative experimentation in fiction writing to explore Indian ethos with all its multi-verse diversity not only to Indians but also the readers of the world. His conscious desire, to express India through his works makes him Indo-nostalgic and India-centered. The research tends to prove that, Indo-nostalgia is the sole touchstone method to determine his literary worth and vocation. It is a sort of his innovative fictional operation; wherein at every line, paragraph and page of his fictions, he expresses his indebted and conscious patriotic feeling for India. Being India’s leading writer, his works won the gamut from history, the satire, rich traditions and cultures of his native land. His fictions grapple with reality and ideals of modern India. To conclude in Tharoor’s own words (www.tharoor.in) it would be appropriate to contend that:As India matters to me; I too would like to matter to India and I want to be a part of India’s narrative in the world. With this thematic analysis, it can be said that, the author always thinks of his past memories which fill him with joy and enthusiasm, the author’s comparison between his past life and present life is highly admirable. He wants to bring out the idea that memories of past push us to fill enthusiasm in present. The image of an India soaring into the author’s Indo-nostalgic memories is beautifully designed and created. It would be appropriate to conclude in the words of Shashi Tharoor (2001:95) that: I am Indian, with friends where friends should be; Wide are the branches of my extensive family tree; Big businessmen and bureaucrats all went to school with me.