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Crassulaceae Family Description Essay

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Cultivar: issue 5 (15)

Peter Lapshin

The plants from Crassulaceae family are the most widely spread leaf succulents in home collections. They are very enduring plants characterized by quick growth, attractive appearance and easy vegetative propagation. In cultivation there are many species of Kalanchoe, Sedum, Pachyphytum, Echeveria and some other genera of succulent plants.

The emergence of cristate form of growth especially spread among cacti is also typical for representatives of some genera from Crassulaceae family. Cristate is such a defect of a stem growth, when the apical meristem expands anomalously and new developing stems begin to broaden and flatten. Further they become sinuous as in some cacti cristate forms, when a cactus is literally "turning into brains".

Photo 1. Echeveria glauca ssp. pumila f. cristata

Photo 2. Echeveria secunda f. monstrosa (this plant from Nikitas Botanical Garden. Ukraina, Crimea.

Echeveria glauca ssp. pumila may be considered the most widely spread cristate among Crassulaceae family. This species preserves its cristate properties very steadily, even when reproduced from single leaves. Young rosettes may often seem normal, without any signs of cristate growth. However their further development will inevitably reveal their cristate nature. We haven't happen yet to come across a normal (non-cristate) form of this Echeveria species. The later the crest develops the more magnificent the adult plant looks.

There is another cristate Echeveria which began spreading recently which I couldn't identify yet (Echeveria sp. f. monstrosa). This species is also able to preserve its cristate properties when propagated from leaves. It differs from the previously mentioned species by thicker leaves and is rot-proof, while E. glauca ssp. pumila is often prone to rot.

Photo 3. Pachyphytum compactum f. cristata

Sinocrassula yunnaniensis is another well-known cristate species. The plant grows fast and is capable as well of preserving its traits when propagated from leaves. The growth character of this cristate does not basically differ from that one of a normal plant. Cristate form of this species is even able to blossom – a rare enough occurrence among cristate plants.

Recently two more cristate species – Pachyphytum compactum and Sedum reflexum were imported under the "plants-from-Holland" brand. The Pachyphytum has a typical cristate form of growth and tolerates exceptionally well variations in cultivation conditions. The leaves of the cristate form are smaller in comparison with normal plants of this species; however an adult cristate plant develops more intensely than a normal one. This cristate also preserves its properties when reproduced from leaves.

Photo 4. Sedum reflexum f. cristata

Sedum reflexum is another "Dutch" cristate. This Sedum is cultivated as an outdoor plant in climatic conditions of the central part of Russia, but it preserves its properties poorly – there are many "plain" offsets which develop a great deal faster than the crest, rapidly displacing it. Now and then cristate offsets sprout among the normal ones but they don't exceed 10%. Thus this cristate form does not reveal its properties in 100% of cases, but it doesn't also lose them completely, as it happened, for example, with cristate form of Echeveria sanguinea ssp. atropurpurea, brought by Valery Serovayskiy from California in 2000. In a year the plant completely lost all of its cristate features.

Photo 5. Crassula portulacea f. monstrosa

There are two widely spread cultivars in Crassulaceae family having the prefix "monstrosa" in the title. They are Crassula lucopodioides f. monstrosa and Crassula portulacea f. monstrosa. The first of these plants was described long ago and differs from the species norm by an irregular, as though broken stem and ruffled leaves. Sometimes it splits from the variegated form of this Crassula but being unstable in the course of growing it frequently reverts to the species norm. Crassula portulacea f. monstrosa differs from the species norm by delayed growth, far smaller size, reduced interstices and entirely dissimilar form of leaf. In contrast to the species norm with an egg-formed leaf, the monstrose form has a cylindrical and gradually broadening leaf with an indent in the end resembling a cup or a hoof. As to the name of this Crassula form there's an opinion that it is not a monstrose in traditional sense of the term but an interspecies hybrid between Crassula portulacea and Crassula lactea.

Photo 6. Graptopetalum (Tacitus) bellum f. cristata

There have been obtained a cristate form of Sedum praealtum from Nikita Botanical Gardens (Crimea, Ukraine). The cristate is distinguished by rapid growth and high tolerance to various external factors, these traits being typical also for the initial species.

In 2001 two species in the author's collection - Tacitus (Graptopetalum) bellus and Echeveria runyonii (zahnii) cv. "Topsy-turvy" – reverted accidentally to cristate forms. The cristate Tacitus was described in the two-volume edition "Succulents: Illustrated Dictionary" by Maurizio Sajeva & Mariangela Costanzo. But I haven't come across a description of cristate Echeveria zahnii in literature. The Tacitus grows rather sluggishly and lateral "normal" offsets appear regularly. The cristate Echeveria has not reached the size of an adult plant yet, however it doesn't differ from the species norm in its growth speed and responses to external influences, and that gives us some hope in further successful development of this cultivar.

  1. Haage Walther. Cacti / Translation from German by A. Salome; Editor D. Semyonov. - Kolos, Moscow, 1992. - 366 p.
  2. Maurizio Sajeva, Mariangela Costanzo. Succulents: Illustrated Dictionary. Timber Press, Portland, USA, 1994. - 239 p.
  3. Maurizio Sajeva, Mariangela Costanzo. Succulents: Illustrated Dictionary II. Timber Press, Portland, USA, 2000. - 234 p.

Cultivar e-magazin: Copyright (c) by Valery Kalishev, Chelyabinsk, Russia, since 2000.
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Neotropical Crassulaceae - Neotropikey from Kew

Neotropical Crassulaceae D.J. Nicholas Hind Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK. Description

Perennial herbs, rarely annual or biennial. rarely small shrubs, usually stem and/or leaf succulents. Leaves opposite or alternate. rarely verticillate. exstipulate. usually simple. usually glabrous. often glaucous. rarely with glands in leaf surface, sometimes pubescent. hairs either unicellular or multicellular and glandular -capitate or eglandular, margins usually entire. sometimes serrate. crenate or dentate. rarely coarsely lobed. Flowers usually in terminal cymose inflorescences, less often in spikes or racemes or solitary in leaf-axils, with or without bracts, regular, hermaphrodite. rarely unisexual and dioecious. mostly (3�)4�5 (�� 30)-merous ; sepals 4�5 (�6), free or united into tube, persistent ; petals same number as sepals, free or variously connate ; stamens hypogynous or epipetalous, as many as petals or twice as many, in one whorl (Crassula -lineage) or more usually two whorls (Sedum -lineage), frequently obdiplostemenous, with outer whorl alternate and free from petals and inner whorl adnate to petals; filaments free or adnate to petals; anthers dorsifixed, bithecous, introrse, opening by a longitudinal slit; nectaries scale-like and usually present between the stamens and carpels. Carpels superior. equal in number to petals, free or slightly connate at base, unilocular; ovules (few�) many, inserted on adaxial suture, submarginal or proximally axile ; styles short or elongated, stigmatic surface on inner side of apex. Fruit usually of separate follicles, rarely a capsule. follicles membranous or leathery, often surrounded by persistent membranous corolla. opening on adaxial side. Seed minute, glabrous. testa variously striate and sometimes ornamented with ridges or papillae; endosperm usually present and sparse; embryo straight.

Distribution in the Neotropics
  • Largest genus is Sedum L. with about 500 species in total.
  • Echeveria DC. is the largest in the Western hemisphere with c. 150 species.
  • Sedum follows Echeveria with c. 110 spp. in the Neotropics.
  • Crassula L. has c. 11 spp. in the Neotropics.
  • Villadia Rose contains c. 10 in Peru.
Number of genera
  • There are four native genera (Sedum. Echeveria. Crassula and Villadia ) and one cultivated (Kalanchoe ).
Useful tips for generic identification
  • Crassula spp. are usually prostrate or aquatic herbs, typically with isostemonous flowers.
  • Echeveria spp. have obovate fleshy leaves, usually arranged in a rosette. and lateral racemose inflorescences
  • Sedum spp. have paniculate cymes; both genera have free or basally connate petals.
  • There are several species of Kalanchoe that are cultivated, some naturalized; they are best recognized by flowers with (4) fused petals forming a tube, and many species have lobed. crenate or serrate margined leaves. A number of species of Kalanchoe. formally in the genus Bryophyllum. have plantlets on the leaf margins.
General notes
  • Main areas of speciation include Africa (dry areas), Madagascar, Macaronesia and Mexico.
  • Up to six subfamilies are recognized but following DNA analysis only two main lineages are seen clearly � the Crassula -lineage and the Sedum -lineage.
  • Mostly plants of dry, rocky habitats, usually terrestrial but rarely epiphytic and very rarely aquatic.
Important literature

Bywater, M. & G. E .Wickens. (1984). New World species of the genus Crassula. Kew Bull. 39(4): 699�728.

Claussen, R. T. (1959). Sedum of North America north of the Mexican Plateau. An exposition of taxonomic methods. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, New York. pp. 380.

Freire Fierro, A. (2004). Crassulaceae. In: G. Harling & L. Andersson (eds), Flora of Ecuador 73: 3-16. Botanical Institute, G�teborg University.

Fr�derstr�m, H. (1936). The genus Sedum L. a systematic essay. Part. IV. Acta Horti Gotoburgensis. 10, Appendix. 1�181 + pl. I�CXV.

Pilbeam, J. (2008). The genus Echeveria. The British Cactus & Succulent Society, Hornchurch. 333 pp.

Walther, E. (1972). Echeveria. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco. pp. 426.

How to cite

Hind, D.J.N. (2009). Neotropical Crassulaceae. In: Milliken, W. Klitg�rd, B. & Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics. .

Click images to enlarge

Inflorescence of Echeveria pulidonis � Jon L. R. Every, RBG, Kew.

Pubescent foliage of Echeveria setosa � Jon L. R. Every, RBG, Kew.

Foliage and inflorescence of Pachyphytum coeruleum � Jon L. R. Every, RBG, Kew.

Sedum sp. Mexico � Peter Gasson, RBG, Kew.

Family Crassulaceae

family Crassulaceae Look at other dictionaries:

Crassulaceae — Jade plant or Friendship Tree, Crassula ovata Scientific classification Kingdom … Wikipedia

Crassulaceae — noun succulent shrubs and herbs • Syn: ↑family Crassulaceae, ↑stonecrop family • Hypernyms: ↑plant family • Member Holonyms: ↑Rosales, ↑order Rosales … Useful english dictionary

Crassulaceae — Dickblattgewächse Prächtige Fetthenne (Hylotelephium spectabile) Systematik Abteilung … Deutsch Wikipedia

Crassulaceae — ▪ plant family the stonecrop or orpine family of about 30 genera of perennial herbs or low shrubs, in the order Saxifragales, native to warm, dry regions of the world. Many species are grown as pot plants or cultivated in rock gardens and… … Universalium

stonecrop family — noun succulent shrubs and herbs • Syn: ↑Crassulaceae, ↑family Crassulaceae • Hypernyms: ↑plant family • Member Holonyms: ↑Rosales, ↑order Rosales … Useful english dictionary

plant family — noun a family of plants • Hypernyms: ↑family • Hyponyms: ↑gymnosperm family, ↑Campanulaceae, ↑family Campanulaceae, ↑bellflower family, ↑Dioscoreaceae, ↑family D … Useful english dictionary

stonecrop family — the plant family Crassulaceae, characterized by succulent herbaceous plants and shrubs with simple, fleshy leaves, clusters of small flowers, and dry, dehiscent fruit, and including hen and chickens, houseleek, kalanchoe, live forever, orpine,… … Universalium

orpine family — noun. crassulaceae * * * orpine family, a widely distributed group of dicotyledonous, succulent herbs or low shrubs, commonly grown in rock gardens or greenhouses. The family includes the orpine, houseleek, kalanchoe, and live forever … Useful english dictionary

List of Canadian plants by family C — Main page: List of Canadian plants by familyFamilies: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I J K | L | M | N | O | P Q | R | S | T | U V W | X Y Z Cabombaceae * Brasenia schreberi watershield Cactaceae * Escobaria vivipara foxtail pincushion cactus *… … Wikipedia

Dickblattgewächse — Prächtige Fetthenne (Hylotelephium spectabile) Systematik Unterabteilung: Samenpflanzen (Spermatophytina) … Deutsch Wikipedia

Crassula pyramidalis

Origin : South Africa (Little Karoo, Namaqualand)

Habitat: Found in the succulent Karoo, on coastal plains, dry Fynbos and hill-tops on quartzitic sand stone, either in summer or winter rainfall areas.

  • Tetraphyle quadrangula Eckl. & Zeyh.
  • Purgosea pyramidalis (Thunb.) G.Don
  • Crassula quadrangula (Eckl. & Zeyh.) Endl. & Walp.
  • Crassula pyramidalis Thunb. var. ramosa Sch�nland
  • Tetraphyle pyramidalis (Thunb.) Eckl. & Zeyh.

Etymology : From the Latin adjective "pyramidalis". "pyramid-shaped" referring to the square-shaped and tapering body of the plant.

Crassula is a very large genus. In general, only the South African species are of interest to the collectors.

The flowers are usually described as inconspicuous, but when accorded favourable conditions as to sunlight and a free air circulation they are pretty nice.

: Small sparingly clustering succulent or small shrub, up to 10(-25) cm tall, 20-50 mm in diameter with numerous closely imbricated leaves, surmounted by a tuft of white flowers. It is pretty slow growing.
Stem: Erect to decumbent, dichotomously branching which topples over with age, but variable in size.
Roots: Fibrous.
Leaves: Small (4-8 mm across), ascending, equal-sized, extremely thin, flat, triangular-ovate, bright green to brownish-green that are firm and closely stacked on top of each other forming a perfect minaret-shaped quadrangular column about 12 mm in diameter, tappering at the obtuse tip. Margins entire. tip bluntly acute. In full sun sun the apical leaves can take a nice purple tinge.
Flowers: Small sweet-scented white to cream-pink appearing in a dens terminal cluster (cymose capitula) the basal part partly hidden by the leaves. Sepals up to 5 mm long oblong-lanceolate, margin ciliate, tip obtuse. Calyx tubular ampulliform, about 12-14 mm long. Lobes white to cream, oblong-elliptic, fused in the flowers tips with a blunt beak. Anthers yellow. Bud reddish.
Blooming season: Mid spring to summer, unfortunately plants die after blooming.

Cultivation: Outdoors in frost free areas, indoors all other zones. Easy to grow needs moderate water � not too wet nor too dry from autumn to spring with regular water in summer (careful watering required in winter), fairly drought tolerant elsewhere. Plants grow well in a well-drained mineral soil.
Cannot take direct sun in summer but generally needs sun part of the day to bloom. In deep shade it gets pretty weak and leggy and eventually rots and dies. Crassulas are sensitive to mealybugs. Protect against frost.
After growing for several years tend to become untidy, and should be cut very short or restarted from cuttings.

Propagation: Seeds/ S tem cuttings. Sow seeds in autumn. Plants root easily from cuttings, place cuttings in clean river sand, mist every three to four days, roots should appear with 2-3 weeks.

The Crassula Page

The Crassulaceae Page
Houseleeks, Orpines, Plakkies, Stonecrops

The Crassulaceae is a large family of 1500 species in which most genera exhibit a degree of leaf succulence. Some succulent Crassulaceae are frost-hardy and suitable for use as garden plants and in horticultural displays. A common feature of the Crassulaceae is the biochemical adaptation to arid conditions: Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM). Because organic acids are used for temporary sequestration of carbon dioxide, CAM plants often taste bitter.

Adromischus are desirable leaf succulents which can be grown on a sunny window ledge. Their varied colour, leaf markings and form makes them highly collectable.
Cotyledon includes interesting shrubby species with succulent stems and leaves. Some species have showy tubular yellow, orange or red flowers.
The genus Crassula includes the well-known Jade or Money Plants and other small succulent sub-shrubs, choice miniatures and mat-forming plants some of which are frost-hardy.
The succulent rosettes of Dudleyas and Echeverias are insufficiently hardy to survive a cold, wet winter, but they are often used as summer bedding plants and housed under glass for the winter.
Kalanchoe includes succulent plants with showy flowers, that are propagated in vast numbers.
Sedums are well known for hardy mat-forming succulent Stonecrops and for larger hardy succulent species such as Hylotelephium (Sedum) telephium which provides useful flower colour in the garden in late summer and early autumn.
Sempervivum,Jovibarba and Rosularia form clumps of succulent rosettes, with hardy cultivars in many colours and forms. Sempervivums add an exotic touch to any garden.
Tylecodon is a South African genus of small shrubby succulent plants with swollen stems that grow and produce leaves during the winter, flowering in the spring or summer.
Umbilicus or Pennyworts are small plants with characteristic succulent leaves that have a navel-like depression over the site of stem attachment on the underside.

Some Crassulaceae are poisonous, especially in the genera Cotyledon,Kalanchoe and Tylecodon whose members contain cardiotoxic and cumulatively neurotoxic Cotyledoside, and should not be consumed or fed to animals. These plants are unpopular with South African farmers as they cause a wasting disease Krimpsiekte or death of livestock.

Summary of succulent Crassulaceae

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Crassulaceae family description essay


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Perennial or rarely annual or hapaxanthic herbs to (sub) shrubs, rarely aquatics, treelike, epiphytic or scandent, with ± succulent leaves, sometimes with succulent stems, rhizomes, underground caudices or succulent roots; indumentum of uni- or multicellular, often glandular hairs, or plants glabrous. Leaves (sub) sessile or rarely petiolate, usually alternate and spiral, or opposite-decussate or rarely whorled, frequently aggregated into rosettes, simple, rarely compound, usually entire or crenate to lobed, rarely dissected, estipulate. Inflorescences usually terminal, bracteate, usually many-flowered, basically thyrsoids, also pleio-, di-or monochasia (cincinni) or rarely true panicles, racemes or spikes. Flowers hermaphrodite, rarely unisexual, actinomorphic or very rarely zygomorphic, usually proterandrous, (3-)5(-32)- merous; sepals free or connate at base, sometimes distinctly unequal in size; petals free or connate to a short to long corolla tube; stamens as many as or usually twice as many as petals; filaments free or ± connate with a tubular corolla; anthers basifixed in basal pit, 4-sporangiate, 2-locular at anthesis, dehiscence latrorse or slightly introrse by longitudinal slits; ovary usually ± superior to semi-inferior; carpels as many as petals, usually free or almost so, sessile or sometimes stipitate, tapering gradually to abruptly into short to long, erect to divergent stylodia, basally with a small to conspicuous dorsal nectary scale; stigma small, (sub) apical, often poorly differentiated; ovulesusually many, rarely few to one, anatropous, crassi-or tenuinucellate, bitegmic, on parietal to marginal placentae. Fruits usually follicles, and usually ± completely dehiscent along the ventral suture, rarely few-seeded, indehiscent and nutlike; seeds smallish, usually 0.5–1 mm long,elongate-fusiform, longitudinally ridged (costate) or papillate (uni-or rarely multipapillate), rarely (nearly) smooth, usually brownish; embryo small, straight; endosperm cellular, scanty.

U. Eggli provided the key and generic descriptions extracted from Eggli (2003) which were largely revised here.

Selected Bibliography

Akiyama, S. Ohba, H. Wu, S.-K. 2001. A new variety of Sinocrassula paoshingensis (S.H. Fu) H. Ohba et al. (Crassulaceae). J. Jap. Bot. 76:222–226.

Alm, T. 2004. Ethnobotany of Rhodiola rosea (Crassulaceae) in Norway. Sida 21, 1:321–344.

Bahadur, B. Ramaswamy, N. Srikanth, R. 1986. Studies on the floral biology and nectar secretion in some Kalanchoe species (Crassulaceae). In: Kapil, R.P. (ed.) Pollination biology-an analysis. New Delhi: Inter-India Publications, pp. 251–259.

Baskin, J.M. Baskin, C.C. 1972. Germination characteristics of Diamorpha cymosa seeds and an ecological interpretation. Oecologia (Berlin) 10:17–28.

Baskin, J.M. Baskin, C.C. 1977. Germination ecology of Sedum pulchellum Michx. (Crassulaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 64:1242–1247.

Behnke, H.-D. 1991. Distribution and evolution of forms and types of sieve-element plastids in the dicotyledons. Aliso 13:167–182.

Berger, A. 1930. Crassulaceae. In: Engler, A. Prantl, K. Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, ed. 2, 18a. Leipzig: W. Engelmann, pp. 352–483.

Bland, K.P. 1995. Phytomyza rhodiolae Griffiths, 1976 (Diptera: Agromyzidae), a leaf-miner in roseroot, Sedum rosea (Crassulaceae), new to Britain. Entomol. Gaz. 46:267–269.

Boiteau, P. Allorge-Boiteau, L. 1995. Kalanchoe (Crassulacées) de Madagascar. Systématique, écophysiologie et phytochimie. Paris: Karthala.

Böttcher, W. Jäger, E.J. 1984. Zur Interpretation der Verbreitung der Gattung Sedum L. s.l. (Crassulaceae) und ihrer Wuchsformtypen. Wissensch. Z. Univ. Halle 33:127–141.

Bowman, R.N. 1983. Intraspecific variability of leaf cuticle alkanes in Sedum lanceolatum along an elevational gradient. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 11:195–198.

Braun, U. 1987. A monograph of the Erysiphales (powdery mildews). Nova Hedwigia, Beih. 89:1–700.

Braun-Blanquet, J. Sutter, R. 1982. Zur Kenntnis der Crassulaceen-Pioniergesellschaften in den Bündner Alpen. Jahresber. Naturf. Gesell. Graubünden 99:75–83.

Burchard, O. 1929. Beiträge zur Ökologie und Biologie der Kanarenpflanzen. Bibl. Bot. 98:1–262, pls. 1–78.

Byalt, V.V. 1997. Meterostachys sikokianus (Crassulaceae), a new species and genus for the flora of China (in Russian with English summary). Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 82:128–130.

Byalt, V.V. 1998. Orostachys paradoxa. a rare species from the Russian far East. Cact. Succ. J. (U.S.) 70:262–263.

Bywater, M. 1980. Observations on seeds of Crassula sect. Rosulares. Kew Bull. 35:401–402.

Bywater, M. Wickens, G.E. 1983. New world species of the genus Crassula. Kew Bull. 39:699–728.

Caballero, A. Jiménez, M.S. 1977. Contribución al estudio anatómico foliar de las crassuláceas canarias. Vieraea 7:115–132.

Calie, P.J. 1981. Systematic studies in Sedum section Ternata (Crassulaceae). Brittonia 33:498–507.

Candolle, A.P. de 1828. Mémoire sur la famille des Crassulacées. Paris: Treuttel & Würtz.

Clausen, R.T. 1959. Sedum of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt: an exposition of taxonomic methods. Ithaca: Comstock.

Clausen, R.T. 1975. Sedum of North America north of the Mexican Plateau. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Clausen, R.T. 1977. Biennial species of Sedum of the Sierra Madre Occidental and the Mexican Plateau. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 104:209–217.

Cronquist, A. 1968. The evolution and classification of flowering plants. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Cullen, J. 1995. Crassulaceae. In: Cullen, J. Alexander, J.C.M. Brady, A. Brickell, C.D. Green, P.S. Heywood, V.H. Jorgensen, P.-M. Jury, S.L. Knees, S.G. Leslie, A.C. Matthews, V.A. Robson, N.K.B. Walters, S.M. The European Garden Flora, IV. Dicotyledons, part II. Dilleniaceae to Krameriaceae. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 170–244.

Davis, G.L. 1966. See general references.

Deil, U. 1991. Rock communities in tropical Arabia. In: Engel, T. Frey, W. Kürschner, H. (eds) Contributiones selectae ad floram et vegetationem orientis. Berlin: Flora et Vegetatio Mundi, pp. 175–187.

Denton, M.F. 1979. Cytological and reproductive differentiation in Sedum section Gormania (Crassulaceae). Brittonia 31:197–211.

Denton, M.F. 1982. Revision of Sedum section Gormania (Crassulaceae). Brittonia 34:48–77.

Denton, M.F. Kerwin, J.L. 1980. Survey of vegetative flavonoids of Sedum section Gormania (Crassulaceae). Canad. J. Bot. 58:902–905.

Ebel, F. Hagen, A. Kümmel, F. 1991a. Beobachtungen zur Wuchsrhythmik von Orostachys spinosus (L.) Sweet (Crassulaceae). Wissensch. Z. Univ. Halle 40:47–68.

Ebel, F. Hagen, A. Kümmel, F. 1991b. Beobachtungen zur Wuchsrhythmik und “Knospenbildung” einiger Greenovia -und Aeonium -Arten (Crassulaceae). Flora 85:187–200.

Eckert, G. 1966. Entwicklungsgeschichtliche und blütenanatomische Untersuchungen zum Problem der Obdiplostemonie. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 85:523–604.

Eggli, U. 1988. Amonographic study of the genus Rosularia (Crassulaceae-Sedoideae). Bradleya suppl. 6:1–119.

Eggli, U. (ed.) 2003. Illustrated Handbook of Succulent Plants, VI. Crassulaceae. Berlin Heidelberg New York: Springer.

Eglinton, G. Gonzalez, A.G. Hamilton, R.J. Raphael, R.A. 1962. Hydrocarbon constituents of the wax coatings of plant leaves: a taxonomic survey. Phytochemistry 1:89–102.

Ellenberg, H. 1996. Vegetation Mitteleuropas mit denAlpen. 5. Auflage. Stuttgart: Ulmer.

Endress, P.K. Stumpf, S. 1991. The diversity of stamen structures in ‘lower’ Rosidae (Rosales, Fabales, Proteales, Sapindales). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 107:217–293.

Engelmann W. 1960. Endogene Rhythmik und photoperiodische Blühinduktion bei Kalanchoe. Planta 55:496–511.

Erdtman, G. 1952. See general references.

Fehrenbach, S. Barthlott, W. 1988. Mikromorphologie der Epicuticular-Wachse der Rosales s.l. und deren systematische Bedeutung. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 109:407–428.

Fernandes, F.M. 1997. Restoration programme for Madeira’s endangered plants. Plant Talk no. 10:19

Fétré, J. Lebègue, A. 1964. Embryogénie des Crassulacées. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 258:5035–5038.

Fishbein, M. et al. 2001. See general references.

Friedrich, H.-C. 1973. Zur Cytotaxonomie der Gattung Crassula. Garcia de Orta, Sér. Bot. 1:49–66.

Fröderström, H. 1930–1935. The genus Sedum. A systematic essay. I–IV. Acta Horti Gothoburgensis 5:1–75, 6:1–111, 7:1–126, 10:1–262.

Gess, S. Gess, F. Gess, R. 1998. Birds, wasps and Tylecodon. Pollination strategies of two members of the genus Tylecodon in Namaqualand. Veld Flora 84:56–57.

Gilbert, M.G. 1985. The genus Sedum in Ethiopia. Bradleya 3:48–52.

Gilbert, M.G. 1989. Crassulaceae. In: Hedberg, I. Edwards, S. (eds) Flora of Ethiopia, III. Pittosporaceae to Araliaceae. Addis Ababa: Ethiopian National Herbarium, pp. 5–26.

Golding, J. (ed.) 2002. Southern African Plant Red Data List. Pretoria: SABONET.

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About this Chapter Title Crassulaceae Book Title Flowering Plants · Eudicots Book Subtitle Berberidopsidales, Buxales, Crossosomatales, Fabales p.p. Geraniales, Gunnerales, Myrtales p.p. Proteales, Saxifragales, Vitales, Zygophyllales, Clusiaceae Alliance, Passifloraceae Alliance, Dilleniaceae, Huaceae, Picramniaceae, Sabiaceae Pages pp 83-118 Copyright 2007 DOI 10.1007/978-3-540-32219-1_12 Print ISBN 978-3-540-32214-6 Online ISBN 978-3-540-32219-1 Series Title The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants Series Volume 9 Publisher Springer Berlin Heidelberg Copyright Holder Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Additional Links
  • About this Book
  • Plant Sciences
  • Plant Systematics/Taxonomy/Biogeography
  • Plant Anatomy/Development
  • Biodiversity
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  • Biomedical and Life Sciences
  • Professor Dr. Klaus Kubitzki (2)
Editor Affiliations
  • 2. Biozentrum Klein-Flottbek und Botanischer Garten, Universität Hamburg
  • J. Thiede (3)
  • U. Eggli (4)
Author Affiliations
  • 3. Schenefelder Holt 3, 22589, Hamburg, Germany
  • 4. Sukkulenten-Sammlung, Mythenquai 88, 8002, Zürich, Switzerland
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