“The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reports that even though 12.5 million Americans are searching for work, there are 3.5 million jobs that remain unfilled, largely due to a lack of skilled workers” (Umehira, 2012, p. 2). Seeking higher education is the responsibility of any student; it is the individual’s accountability to maintain their resiliency to live up to the monumental tasks of achieves academic success. College students must take full control of their educational needs to achieve personal success. “A 1998 survey identified 90 percent of the American population were concerned about the decline of the moral values across the nation” (Clarkston, 2011, p. 14). The price of this success comes with the responsibility of not compromising their personal moral and ethical responsibilities to themselves and to the institution. It is a large undertaking process to manage these learning objectives while understanding personal responsibilities to earn an educational degree.
“Ethical decision belongs to the individual to make the choice to do the right or wrong” (Clarkston, 2011, p. 13). Ethical and moral responsibilities are integrated standards, which defines a person’s role to maintain ones integrity. However, if a student violates these standards and rules and regulations of unbecoming a scholar student, within the universities policies. Then the student could face expulsion or may receive sanctions, due to the circumstances of the violation. If a student continues to remain in the university system, ones integrity will be continuous questioned while attending the same institution. The Oxford University Scholarship Online Press states, “Moral responsibility as operating at a different level from individual responsibility and as being justified by appeal to collective intentions and actions to which they.
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Published: 2007-11-15 | ISBN: 0195337468, 0195179552 | PDF | 304 pages | 2.4 MB
This is a selection of essays on moral responsibility that represent the major components of John Martin Fischer's overall approach to freedom of the will and moral responsibility. The collection exhibits the overall structure of Fischer's view and shows how the various elements fit together to form a comprehensive framework for analyzing free will and moral responsibility.
The topics include deliberation and practical reasoning, freedom of the will, freedom of action, various notions of control, and moral accountability. The essays seek to provide a foundation for our practices of holding each other (and ourselves) morally and legally accountable for our behavior. A crucial move is the distinction between two kinds of control. According to Fischer, "regulative control" involves freedom to choose and do otherwise ("alternative possibilities"), whereas "guidance control" does not. Fischer contends that guidance control is all the freedom we need to be morally responsible agents. Further, he contends that such control is fully compatible with causal determinism. Additionally, Fischer argues that we do not need genuine access to alternative possibilities in order for there to be a legitimate point to practical reasoning.
Fischer's overall framework contains an argument for the contention that guidance control, and not regulative control, is associated with moral responsibility, a sketch of a comprehensive theory of moral responsibility (that ties together responsibility for actions, omissions, consequences, and character), and an account of the value of moral responsibility. On this account, the value of exhibiting freedom (of the relevant sort) and thus being morally responsible for one's behavior is a species of the value of artistic self-expression.
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In practice the moral judgements regarding the responsibility of the accused for his actions affect the judiciary's application of the legal rules.
Critically analyse the extent to which the criminal law on causation aligns with this statement.Introduction
This essay question provokes consideration of the moral judgments of the accused when their actions place them in a position of being accused of a criminal offence. The question also considers the moral judgements of the judiciary who are deciding upon whether that same accused individual is guilty of committing the criminal offence.
In exploring the moral judgement of the accused, we will be looking at the traditional view which is that to be at fault or 'culpable' the accused is required to have recognised or intended to act wrongly. This is the meaning behind 'guilty mind' which is the intent to commit the crime commonly known as the 'mens rea' of an offence. 1
When discussing the moral judgements of the judiciary in this context, there are various schools of thought about whether law and morality are one and the same or are distinct and separate and should be treated as such. One such school of thought which is focused upon here is that of Utilitarianism which separates law and morality and when there are discussions of 'what the law should be', this is not the same as saying that there must be a moral judgement on what the law should be. Their stance is to separate law and morals and therefore distinguish the law from what it is and what it should be. 2
The context in which the above issues are explored is that of criminal causation.What is the criminal law on causation?
The criminal law does not seek to punish people for their evil thoughts but for the conduct of the accused. 3 Where charged with a result crime, the prosecution must prove the accused's acts or omissions caused the outcome. 4 There are two strands to causation, factual and legal. Factual causation or the 'but for test' 5 is where it must be proved that the outcome would not have occurred but for the conduct of the accused. 6
Legal causation, on the other hand, is closely related to ideas of responsibility and culpability. 7 In a criminal case, once the 'but for test' is decided upon, the legal test is not a test of causation but of moral reaction. The question is whether it is fair to attribute blame, fault, responsibility, or culpability to the accused which indicates the value-judgment made. 8 Utilitarians such as Bentham disagree that these concepts must be considered as utilitarians are clear that there should be no liability without fault. 9 In other words, if the accused did not cause the outcome or the consequence, then they should not be held to be criminally liable. This question often arises in discussions and deliberations surrounding homicide. This is because with such result crimes actus reus is that the accused's conduct must have caused a specific outcome.; In murder cases the accused's act must have caused the death of another person before they can be considered criminally liable. 10
On questions of legal causation the jury will be directed to consider whether the accused's act was more than minimal in contributing towards the victim's death. One of the leading cases in this area is R vAdams 1957 11 in which a doctor faced a murder charge for providing his patient with pain-relieving drugs which lead to an acceleration of the patient's death. The jury were directed by Devlin J to consider that no act constitutes murder unless it causes death. 12 By 'cause' Devlin J explained that it was not a scientific, technical or philosophical definition but what the jury would consider to be 'common sense'. 13 According to Allen, presumably a jury's moral reaction would be that the doctor's sole aim was to relieve pain and it was incidental that the patient's death was accelerated. However, had it had been a sole beneficiary who injected the patient with the aim of accelerating the patient's death so that they could benefit from their inheritance quicker, then the jury's moral reaction is likely to be that the beneficiary caused the death.Do moral judgements affect questions about causation, and if so to what extent?
It appears in R v Adams 14 the issue of causality became mixed up with the issue of motive because there was a strong moral imperative to clear the doctor of liability. This led to the causality of the doctor's actions being doubted rather than his mental state or the mens rea of the offence being doubted. 15 It is as though a special defence was created to distinguish the doctor from a murderer in cases of life-shortening palliative care. 16 This is a class example of a case in which moral judgements affected questions about causation to the maximum extent. This is proven as the outcome of the case was that the accused was acquitted. However some academics would argue that the moral judgements affect questions about causation to a limited extent. This is because of the argument that Dr Adams was no more different than the doctor and serial killer Harold Shipman who was also acting outside the law, despite the judgement in the case. 17
It is clear to utilitarian's that in this instance that the doctor should have been found guilty. The patient was bound to die and the doctor was simply using palliative care to ease the pain however it was the palliative care which accelerated the patient's death. 18 As such, there was no intervening act which broke the chain of causation between the act of the doctor in providing palliative care and the victim's death. 19 Therefore a utilitarian judgment would be that the doctor was guilty as he caused the patient's death. The 'morality' of the matter should not be considered in deciding whether an accused person is guilty. According to utilitarians the moral judgment of the accused and the moral judgement of the judiciary is not how the issue of criminal causation should be decided upon. 20
The moral judgment exercised by the judiciary stems from their judicial oath and what is expected of them when they are appointed. 21 At Equality in Justice Day, the Lord Judge the Lord Chief Justice spoke on the qualities of a good judge: "Many qualities are required of a judge… He or she must of course know the law, and know how to apply it, but the judge must also be wise to the ways of the world. The judge must have the ability to make a decision … Judges must have moral courage - it is a very important judicial attribute - to make decisions that will be unpopular with the politicians or the media and the public, and indeed perhaps most importantly of all, to defend the right to equal treatment before the law of those who are unpopular at any given time." 22 It therefore appears that the judiciary in their decision making process should have regard to morality and 'do the right thing'. This is why when taking the judicial oath, the judiciary swear 'to do right to all manner of people'. 23 It can therefore be seen that it is deemed very important for the judiciary to have moral courage when making decisions and so moral judgements regarding the responsibility of the accused should affect the judiciary's application of the legal rules.
The judicial oath appears to permit moral decision making in the judicial process, however it may be that the judicial oath places too much emphasis on 'taking decisions with moral courage'. 24. Clearly moral decision making should be limited where it leads to an exaggeration of the law and the spirit of the law which was the outcome in R v Adams 1957. 25
Alan Norrie argues that such moral decision making should be limited so that judgements are given within the ambit of the law and the law is not changed for 'morally appropriate cases'. 26 For some offences when discussing the issue of mens rea, the jury are entitled to find that there was 'indirect intention' but other offences require direct intention for an offence to be proved. However this element of flexibility is what the judiciary rely on to acquit the accused in 'morally appropriate' cases. This is because traditionally, questions about the accused's mens rea at the time of the offence excludes moral judgements. 27
Therefore according to Norrie, the moral judgments of the judiciary affects their application of the law to the facts of a case 28. It is noted, however, that Norrie's opinion relates to the mens rea of the accused rather than the actus reus. Therefore it can be said that 'in practice the moral judgements regarding the mental state of the accused affect the judiciary's application of the legal rules'.
There are also schools of thought such as those adopted by Moore, which supports the proposition that legal responsibility should closely mirror moral responsibility. 29 Moore's reasoning is that legal liability only falls on those who are morally liable. 30 This is perhaps the flip side of the utilitarian argument which seeks to separate law from morality as discussed earlier.
However, whilst Moore's opinion may be reflected in cases such as R v Adams 31. the breadth of case law on euthanasia clearly shows that morally liability is far from being the 'decisive' factor. An example is R (Purdy) 32 in which the Director of Public Prosecutions was required to set out detailed policy by which he exercised his discretion to prosecute euthanasia cases. The logic behind this was so that a person contemplating assisting someone who is terminally ill could foresee whether they would be prosecuted. It is therefore clear that such cases are decided not merely on moral grounds and what is 'morally appropriate' as Moore states. If that were the case, the direction for the DPP to provide policy guidance in this area would not have been necessary. Issues of criminal liability are not just based on moral judgments of the accused because they were acting for the 'right reasons'. The reason is because there is no universal declaration on what is right or wrong even in euthanasia cases.Conclusion
As outlined at the beginning of this essay, there is a difference between the moral judgment of the accused and that of the judiciary when considering causation and criminal liability. The question is important because problems arise where the judiciary creatively interpret and apply the law to convict those who they feel that morally are to blame but acquit those who they morally sympathise with. 33 The reason for the creative law-making is because in Alan Norrie's view, the judiciary want the freedom to acquit the accused in morally appropriate cases. 34 Utilitarianisms would also agree that 'morally appropriate' judgements are made in certain circumstances. They are however also strongly of the view that judgments should not be based on this but on whether the accused cause the offence. 35
So the moral judgment of the judiciary, can and clearly has affected the application of the legal rules in relation to criminal causation. The case of R v Adams 36 is a classic example where the law is clear that the doctor should have been found guilty as his actions caused the patient's death. Just because the doctor's primary aim was to provide palliative care, the moral judgement of the judiciary provided a 'special defence' to the doctor. This is a judgement, however, which is very much in the minority and therefore it can be said that the extent to moral judgments affect the criminal law on causation is minimal.
In relation to the moral judgement of the accused, this refers to the mens rea of the accused, whether they have a 'guilty mind' and therefore whether their state of mind makes them guilty (providing the actus reus is also proved). However causation only deals with the actus reus of the offence, and is specific to whether the accused's act caused the outcome required for the offence to be proved. The main example in the essay was murder and that the accused's act had to cause the victim's death for them to be guilty. As such, the criminal law on causation does not align with the statement as causation and mens rea are two separate elements.Footnotes
1 Catherine Elliott and Frances Quinn, Criminal Law (9 th edn, Pearson 2012) 14.
2 Herbert L.A. Hart, "Positivism and the Separation of Law and Morals" (1958) 71 Harv. L. Rev. 593, 595.
3 Michael Allen, Textbook on Criminal Law (7 th edn, OUP 2007) 17.
5 R v White 1910 2 KB124.
8 Glanville Williams, Textbook of Criminal Law (2 nd edn, Steven & Sons Ltd 1981) 381.
9 Jeremy Bentham, 'Principles and Morals and Legislation' in I Works I 84 (Bowring edn, 1859) Ch XIII 593
11 R v Adams 1957 Crim LR 365.
13 Ibid (n 8) 381.
15 Andrew Simester, Bob Sullivan, John Spencer and Graham Virgo, Simester and Sullivan's Criminal Law: Theory and Doctrine(5 th edn, Hart Publishing 2013) 367-368.
16 David Ormerod, Smith & Hogan: Criminal Law (11 th edn, OUP 2005) 435.
17 Stephen Smith, End of Life Decisions in Medical Care (Cambridge University Press 2012) 208.
20 Jeremy Bentham, 'Principles and Morals and Legislation' in I Works I 84 (Bowring edn, 1859) Ch XIII 593
21 Judiciary 2015, 'Oaths' (Court and Tribunal Judiciary, 2015) Read the article here accessed 2 July 2015
22 Judiciary 2015, 'Becoming a judge' (Courts and Tribunal Judiciary, 2015) Read the article here accessed 2 July 2015.
25 Ibid (n 11); Ibid (n 17) 208.
26 Alan Norrie, 'After Woollin' (1999) Crim LR 532, 534.
27 Ibid (n 26), 533.
28 Ibid (n 26) 533.
29 Fabio Bacchini, Stefano Caputo, Massimo Dell'Utri, New Advances in Causation, Agency and Moral Responsibility (Cambridge Scholars Publishing 2015) 132.
30 Ibid (n 31) 132.
32 R (Purdy) v DPP (2009) UKHL 45.
33 Elliott (n 1) 32.
34 Alan Norrie, 'After Woollin' (1999) Crim LR 532
35 Herbert L.A. Hart, "Positivism and the Separation of Law and Morals" (1958) 71 Harv. L. Rev. 593, 595.How can we help?
The two essays I read were "On Aids and Moral Duty" by Willard Gaylin and "Discrimination Goes On" by Robert H. "On Aids and Moral Duty" says that HIV positive individuals have a moral responsibility to let others know they are HIV positive to protect innocent people from unknowingly contracting the virus. Gaylin says "Everyone who tests positive must understand that he is a potential vector for the AIDS virus and has a moral duty and responsibility to protect others from contamination.". While reading "On Aids and Moral Duty" you run across the phrase "moral responsibility" many ti.2. Responsibilities Overcome by Ethan
In the book Ethan Frome by Edith Wharton the main character, Ethan is overcome with responsibilities. Some of these responsibilities are implied but Ethan's life is still affected by them. These responsibilities, implied or expressed, lead Ethan's life down the path it took. He felt he had a responsibility to take over the family farm and mill and become the man of the house.Another of Ethan's responsibilities was marrying Zeena; this was more of a moral responsibility then anything else. Ethan felt bad however and out of fear of dying alone and moral obligation to c.3. Sense of Moral Responsibility in The Great Gatsby
These lessons include undergoing a development of responsibility or morality. Scott Fitzgerald, Nick Carraway is a character that develops a sense of moral responsibility throughout the novel. Also, Nick Carraway produces many moral judgments of the other characters, which he relays to the reader.4. The Glass Menagerie: Life Choices between Responsibility and Happiness
Tom Wingfield is a character in the play that must face this moral dilemma. Responsibility to others is also very important because it is what makes humans able to coexist. If no one took responsibility for others than children would not have caring parents, people could not trust each other, and love could not exist. Analytically speaking, responsibility to others is more important to the function of society as a whole than personal happiness. However to a single person, happiness generally seems to be more important than responsibility.5. Ethics
In Derrida's quote, he's asking you if it's okay to act moral and responsible if you have the sense of duty and responsibility. Derrida does not believe that it is moral for a person to act moral and responsible because it is already programmed into you and you feel a duty to act moral and responsible. Kant said that it is your duty by law to act moral and perform moral actions. But if you enjoy the moral actions you perform then they are not moral. There is no duty to act moral and responsible, but people choose to act these ways, and yes, I do agree with Derrida wh.6. Lord of the Flies vs. Huck Finn: Uphold on Responsibilities
Thus, responsibility helps individuals to evolve and mature. Taking care of yourself, as well as others is an enormous responsibility. It was each group's responsibility to accomplish their tasks. Ralph had a moral responsibility and he stuck to it. (Golding 174) Piggy had the responsibility of sti.7. Breaking Moral Rules
Doctors, police officers and lawyers are constantly placed in situations that test their moral beliefs against their responsibilities to society. Moral rules are not able to deal with every possible human situation as a decision to act within the moral guidelines in one situation might actually be breaking another inter-related moral rule.Society has all kinds of moral rules, along with legal rules to control people's behaviour when the moral rules aren't enough. The federal government then places the responsibility on to the states to either make abortion legal or illegal.8. The Issue of Human Responsibility
Therefore, we need a structured set of characteristics to describe responsibility. There are three basic defining characteristics of moral responsibility that I use as a model to decide whether or not a person should be held accountable for their actions. There are definite differences between legal responsibility and moral responsibility but in this case the two boys who were found not guilty were let go because the jury believed that they didn't perform these acts of their own free will. Responsibility is a sometimes confussing and difficult concept to grasp and trying to fi.9. The Fifty-Nine Story Crisis
The Fifty-Nine Story CrisisCase FactsA story of professional ethics and moral responsibility was publicized in an article appearing in the May 29th, 1995 issue of The New Yorker magazine. The first of which relates to the issue of individual moral responsibility versus that of organizational or corporate responsibility. What responsibility did he have just to investigate his design further. ConclusionOur group does believe that LeMessurier had a moral obligation to investigate the possibility of a defect. Fortunately, LeMessurier took the personal responsibility to investigate.10. "My Moral Philosophy"
MORAL PHILOSOPHYEveryone human being on the planet carries with them a moral philosophy of some kind. Egoism is a highly individualist philosophy primarily concerned with one's principal responsibility to oneself. The moral philosophy of egoism does not fit into my interests. Virtue is partly intellectual and partly moral. Since moral virtue is the outcome of habit I strive to make good moral decisions that are virtuous.11. Moral Issues in Hamlet
Moral Questions in HamletConscience and ResponsibilityHamlet the play and Hamlet the character have always attracted the attention of critics with a strongly moral bent. The play deals with crime and its punishment, with complex questions of right and wrong, moral decisions, moral responsibility for actions, questions of conscience. This makes the moral effect of the play extremely confusing and ambiguous. Hamlet embodies two incompatible moral systems, one Christian, the other pagan. This process begins when he rashly slays Polonius in mistake for Claudius; this is the turning-poi.12. The Importance of Frankenstein Moral Values
Moral Values in FrankensteinIt is said that every story has a moral, or sometimes if you look hard enough, there are many different morals within one story. In the well-written novel Frankenstein, the teenage author, Mary Shelley, teaches us about moral values. Shelley makes it evident that in most situations, too much desire for a moral value such as knowledge, love or ambition can result in suffering and agony for the characters in the novel.The first moral value that leads to suffering for the characters of the novel is knowledge. The creature's stay with the cottagers'.13. Establishing Corporate Social Responsibility
CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITYBecause society is fundamentally based upon performance and profit, it isnot unusual to find that it is necessary to impart a sense of corporatesocial responsibility with regard to contemporary commerce. (Ruin, 1997, p.PG).According to the book's article on this matter, establishing proper ethicalguidelines -- and therefore appropriate corporate social responsibility --must come from a management perspective, which is the primary location wherepolicy is derived. One can easily surmise from Beauchamp et al (1996) that diversity is trulykey to corpor.14. Moral Development
He also believed that social interaction promoted the individual's moral growth. The theme of moral growth plays a prominent role in Mark Twain's Huckleberry Finn. Therefore he is subjected to frequently shifting opinions of moral stance. So, what is Huck's responsibility to society? Stage Four is concerned with the individual's responsibility to the system.15. Wanted Perfect Employee
Moral responsibility of employeesIn today's society, employers expect employees to do what is asked without question. Everybody should do something if its morally right even if there are minor consequences that might follow.If an event or action has major consequences, then I believe that it is not your moral right to carry out that action. This is an example of an action or event that is not the moral responsibility of an employee.In the book A Man For All Seasons one of the main characters, Sir Thomas More, was faced in a situation similar to the grocery store examples. B.16. Individual Freedom Overcomes Social Responsibility
In the never-ending battle between the ideas of individual freedom and social responsibility, individual freedom is the victor. Creon is set on the idea of social responsibility. Though it may seen social responsibility and Creon win, in all actuality they did not. This shows how the belief in social responsibility ruined a man's life. He states that one's one moral ethics are the more important than the laws set up by society.17. Major Themes in Of Mice and Men
These themes are the value of dreams and goals, moral responsibility, social injustice, and the bond of friendship and loyalty. Many people of good character have to honor certain moral responsibilities. George is bond by his own moral to take care care of Lennie. Candy felt like he neglected his moral responsibility to shoot his own dog. At the end of the story George is forced, out of moral, to shoot Lennie.18. Free Will and Determinism: A Dialogue
Determinism states that the freedom, which is a condition of moral responsibility, is not compatible with the truth of universal determinism (everything is caused). Universal determinism is true; we do not have the freedom which is a condition of moral responsibility. Freedom A is necessary for moral responsibility but is not sufficient, you also need freedom B and we don't have freedom B therefore there is no moral responsibility. But blame and punishment do not presuppose that the very action for which a person is blamed could have been avoided, it will cause them in the fut.19. Four Major Themes of "Of Mice and Men"
These themes are the value of dreams and goals, moral responsibility, social injustice, and the bond of friendship and loyalty. Many people of good character have to honor certain moral responsibilities. Candy felt like he neglected his moral responsibility to shoot his own dog. At the end of the story George is forced, out of moral, to shoot Lennie.20. The Moral and Legal Obligations of Breast Implants
The Moral and Legal Obligations of Breast ImplantsI. There are several moral obligations that a company has to its customers. It is the responsibility of the manufacturer to provide just compensation. Were the comanies went wrong is that they did not tell the consumer that they were not one hundred percent fail free, therefore they have a moral obligation towards the patient. Throughout this debate, the responsibility has been discussed.21. How to Take Responsibility for Your Newborn Monster
Victor's own sense of responsibility changes throughout the novel, and he is tested many times. I imagine that you may deduce an apt moral from my tale. Initially, in Victor's own story, there is no sense of responsibility. God took responsibility for the creation that was his and his alone, and created the flood. Victor finally realizes his true responsibility towards society, and what he must do to uphold it.22. Juveniles' Responsibility of Action
Juveniles Must Accept Responsibility for their Action Are juveniles as under control today as they were in the past. Also, the opposition feels that the juvenile cannot accept full responsibility for his or her actions. Margaret Rosenheim, author of Pursuing Justice for the Child, insists that "there are many adults of all ages who are the moral and intellectual inferiors of most older juveniles, and even some of young children", and if there are juvenile delinquents out there who are brighter than some adult criminals, then the courts must try the minors as adults.23. Billy Budd: Searching Answers to Moral Dillemas
In the novel, Billy Budd, Herman Melville searches for answers to moral dilemmas. Even though there are many differing religions, society has been able to take religious and moral principles and apply them to laws. Therefore, it was Captain Vere's moral obligation to convict Billy Budd. He had a responsibility to prevent it. He had a responsibility to maintain peace in a time of war and to do his job to the best of his ability.24. Teaching Kids with Morals and Values
The responsibility of raising children with a strong moral base has been lost in the chaos of the modern world. Many parents are no longer involved in raising their children, which leaves the responsibility of providing children with a proper moral background neglected. Today, there are children being raised in day care centers and elementary schools which most often do not meet the need for supplying kids with moral character.The most obvious and effective solution to this problem is for parents to reclaim this responsibility and become the primary educators and mentors in their childre.25. The Great Gatsby and The Two Stages of Development
Beginning with tolerance of the other characters' actions; ending with full moral responsibility dealing with their conflicts, Nick Carroway found that immoral decisions lead to harmful situations.In the beginning, Nick Carroway was very tolerant of the numerous affairs happening within his circle of friends and acquaintances. Daisy would often go to Gatsby's house in the afternoons, and still Nick would remain tolerant of the immoral acts performed by his cousin.Towards the end of the novel as things became more involved Nick realized the error of his ways, and became a more mo.
Summary: Suffering, hubris and moral responsbility are all interralated and cannot exist apart from each other in ancient Greek literature. This is illustration in the tragedy "Oedipus Rex" by Sophocles.
In Ancient Greek tragedy, the concepts of suffering, hubris and moral responsibility are all interrelated, as one simply wouldn't exist without the other. Oedipus Rex, composed by Sophocles, illuminates this. Through being structured in a Mystery Play format, the audience then witnesses the characters unravel a truth known from the beginning, distancing actor from spectator which allows the audience to see the roles of these concepts. The political, social and cultural aspects from the era in which the play has been written are then also made determinable in the work, however the play still manages to be universal as apart from the storyline and plot, it deals with humanistic issue of confronting the truth.
In Ancient Greek Theatre, suffering is presented as inevitable as well as irrevocable. According to Aristotle, the tragic protagonist is responsible for his/her own suffering but it is through the destruction of the.
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The Great Gatsby - Jay Gatsby's Greatness
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Moral Responsibility in Gatsby Bang! Gatsby's dead! George Wilson shot Gatsby! However, who is morally responsible for killing Gatsby? The obvious answer would be George since he pulled the trigger. However, it is clear, if for no other reason than for the unimportance of George in the book, that others were also partly responsible. In The Great Gatsby, by F. Scott Fitzgerald, Tom, Daisy, and George are morally responsible for the
Moralism In The Great Gatsby
The book, The Great Gatsby, written by F. Scott Fitzgerald, deals with the issue of morals and humanity's errors. A lack of moral values and convictions within the characters of.
death of Gatsby. Tom, because of his tattling on Gatsby, can be morally blamed for the murder of Gatsby. When George talked to him, Tom told George it was Gatsby's car that hit Myrtle, but he failed to mention that it was Daisy driving. Even though it was never directly mentioned, it is shown that Tom knew Daisy was the one who killed Myrtle when Nick said, ". and anybody would have said that they were conspiring together,"
The Great Gatsby
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(p.146) when referring to Tom and Daisy talking in their house. This "conspiring" was probably a plan to get Daisy away from the whole incident. Furthermore, Tom and Daisy leave town the next day, proving Tom's knowledge of Daisy's guilt by just trying to escape with her. Even knowing this, Tom still had the indecency to tell George it was Gatsby's car. Tom can also be morally blamed for the killing of Gatsby because of his
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affair with Myrtle. George killed Gatsby not only because he thought he killed Myrtle, but also because he was under the impression that Gatsby was the one having the affair with his wife. Tom knew George was thinking this and when George talked to him, Tom seized his opportunity to get off the hook for his sin and directed it to Gatsby, making himself even more morally incorrect for doing it. It is clearly justifiable to blame
A dream is defined in the Webster's New World Dictionary as: a fanciful vision of the conscious mind ;a fond hope or aspiration ;anything so lovely, transitory, etc. as to.
Tom for Gatsby's death. Daisy can also be put morally
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2) You should read and understand company guidelines, rules, codes, and procedures.
3) You should not knowingly help another person act unethically in the conduct of business.
4) You are ethically responsible to yourself, your company, co-workers, supervisor, customers, and your community.
Bringing about a wrongful act with the help of others, then, does not differ in a morally significant way from deliberately bringing about a wrongful act with the help of inanimate instruments: The person is fully responsible for the wrong of the injury even if this responsibility is shared with others. (Velasquez, 2005, p.47)
Every company or business usually starts out with its own set agenda, which differs from business to business. A lot of businesses exist simply to make money. There are others who seriously wish to provide a needed service to a community or to the world. Each of these businesses has a corporate responsibility to the public, its shareholders and the world it trades in. In its most basic terms, Franklin Electrics responsibility can come down to the ethics of a business. Each company has its own set of core values, but the company's values also touch everyone that the business deals with. Years ago, a company's corporate responsibility was dictated by its government. There were set laws that had to be adhered to regarding financial and social responsibility. Today, however, corporate responsibility has to take into account the world that we live in on a much wider scale. Corporations are now held accountable not just by the government, but also by the public. Franklin's responsibility must now take into account how dealings with customers, shareholders and employees are seen by the world. Large global corporations know that people are watching them and that any wrongdoing will not go unnoticed.
Franklin's policies are clearly stated on paper immediately after a prospect goes through the hiring process and can also be found on its corporate homepage:
The purpose of this Code of Business Conduct and Ethics (the "Code") of Franklin Electric Co. Inc. (the "Company") is to deter wrongdoing and promote (a) honest and ethical conduct, including fair dealing and the ethical handling of actual or apparent conflicts of interest between personal and professional