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Vzw Kriterium Beispiel Essay

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Essay criteria

Essay Evaluation Criteria

A (80-100) - free of major or frequent grammatical and spelling mistakes
- well organized
- strong argument
- material thoroughly covered
- display of original thought
- well written
- shows an obvious commitment to doing a good job
- stands out from other papers

B (70-79) - Most of the points covered in A grade, but not quite as original or well written, does show much promise though

C (60-69) - a competent discussion of major points
- no major grammatical or spelling problems, but writing could use improvement
- displays a decent effort

D (50-59) - displays some effort but,
- organization needs tightening up
- grammatical and spelling problems
- suggests some confusion concerning material

F (0-49) - serious grammatical and/or spelling problems
- comprehension of material not displayed
- little effort made, looks like it was prepared night before

(Modified from an outline provided by Richard Keshen)

Remember, your job in writing an essay is to clearly show the reader/grader that you understand the material and the topic or question of the essay; that you have put some time into planning what you will say about it; that you can write competently. Always strive for clarity of thought first, rather than going for complex "deep"-sounding sentences and phrases that will only obscure your thought. And honestly ask yourself before you hand in a paper, "If I were given this to read and grade, would I give it a decent mark?" One sure way of getting a bad mark is to hand in something that is written poorly, ungrammatically and full of spelling errors. In order to get a good mark, it is essential to plan out your thesis and/or argument, write a first draft in advance of the deadline, and then improve it by proofreading and editing it.

A Note on Plagiarism. What is plagiarism? Plagiarism occurs when you take the words or the original thought of another person without giving them due credit. It needn’t always be motivated by the intention to steal someone else’s work in order to get a better mark. It can happen if you simply copy out verbatim (word for word) something from a book or encyclopedia article without giving a reference as to where you found these ideas/words.

A convenient form of citing sources is the ‘name, year’ method. For example, if you have just quoted a passage from page 12 of a book by Einstein published in the year 1934, or have referred to some ideas you have found on page 12 of an Einstein book published in 1934, simply include a reference like this: E.g.

According to the special theory of relativity, all inertial motion is relative to the frame of reference of the observer (Einstein, 1934, 12).

Then include in your bibliography page an entry like so:

Einstein, Albert. 1934. The Theory of Relativity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

For an article your citation can also follow the (name, year) style, e.g. (Maynard Smith, 2000, 178), but in your bibliography it should look like this:

Maynard Smith, John. 2000. "The Concept of Information in Biology," Philosophy of Science. 67 ( 2 ): 177-194.

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Verizon Wireless - Essay by Mschasidee

Verizon Wireless Essay

Below is an essay on "Verizon Wireless" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.

Verizon Communications (Verizon) is a global communications leader in wireless, landline, and broadband services. Operating primarily in the US, Verizon has two primary strategic business units: wireless and landline or wireline. The company’s wireless business unit, Verizon Wireless (VZW), operates in highly competitive markets and represents 60% of Verizon’s total revenue (Verizon Communications, 2011). VZW offers mobile communication services on what is arguably the largest, most reliable network. Because of the intense competition, the strategic focus is on new product and service development, strategic business alliances, and brand presence. The VZW strategy for growth is to leverage the increased demand for mobile data capabilities and innovative technology.

VZW is one of the largest wireless service providers in the US (Verizon Communications, 2011). VZW offers wireless services that include voice and data. According to Johnson, Christensen and Kagermann (2008), creating a value proposition is the most important aspect of a good business model. With the oversaturation of mobile services, Verizon has focused on delivering value through its robust mobile network. The VZW network offers broadband internet capabilities at high speeds on a variety of mobile devices. VZW customers can choose a variety of voice plans and devices with their service. They also rely on VZW’s ability to offer a network with the latest in technological advances. In 2010, VZW announced its 4G LTE network that boasts improved network efficiencies and higher data output (Datamonitor, 2011). VZW also collaborates with other wireless providers to access communication towers that enable the company to provide their voice and data service in 100 of the most populated cities in the U.S. (Verizon Communications, 2011).

According to Christensen (2009) disruptive innovations can move “up market” quickly and displace established competitors. Having access to the latest.

Vzw kriterium beispiel essay

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2013 BVA Essay Award - Working Capital Management is an important value creator in a Leveraged Buyout

2013 BVA Essay Award

Brussels, 27 March 2013 – Since 2007, the Belgian Venture Capital & Private Equity Association vzw/asbl (BVA) grants its annual BVA Essay Award in co-operation with Deloitte. In its 7th year, the BVA Essay Award for best essay about the venture capital & private equity industry went to Enrique Martinez of HEC©ULg.

The winning essay was presented for the degree of Master in Management Sciences at HEC©ULg (Year 2010-2011) under the direction of Professor Séverine Plunus and investigates the impact of working capital management in creating value in companies after their leveraged buyout through private equity investment.

The particular form of a Leveraged Buyout, company takeovers by using a high level of borrowed debt, has intrigued the academic world and has been the subject of many studies. Among other things, it has been demonstrated that companies under leveraged buyout enjoy greater growth, better operational performance and profitability. The impact of working capital management on LBOs has been studied on other markets, namely the United States and United Kingdom, but these are showing different characteristics than our Belgian credit oriented market.

The aim of this dissertation is to analyse whether the working capital in Belgian companies is managed better after having completed a leveraged buyout than before, whereby the link is made to the management of the working capital with some performance indicators of LBOs.

After having developed research hypotheses, these were tested empirically with a sample of 34 Belgian companies having completed an LBO between 2002 and 2007. The outcome of the analytical model reveals that LBOs manage working capital better after the transaction than before. Regarding the specifics of the working capital management and the performance of LBOs, the results show that value is created by reducing working capital through reducing the number of days of outstanding receivables and by increasing the number of days of outstanding payables. A specific impact on the number of outstanding inventory days was not noticed.

The results of the study contribute to the literature on the valuation relevance of buyouts backed by private equity investments.

Through this award, the BVA and Deloitte wish to stimulate the academic research about venture capital (VC) en private equity (PE). This should lead to a better understanding of the discipline and its added value to society especially for entrepreneurs, employees, works councils and various governmental organizations.

The BVA-Jury in 2013, that consisted of Prof. Em. Charles Van Wymeersch, Prof. Em. Dirk Heremans and five representatives of the private equity and venture capital industry, received three essays this year.

The essay of Enrique Martinez was selected based upon four scoring criteria:

1. Academic Quality: For the careful literature analysis and formulation of research hypotheses leading to the formulation of testable hypotheses.

2. Originality: Relevant analysis on original Belgian data, whereby the influence of Working Capital behaviour as a result of LBO is not often investigated.

3. Accessibility: Easy to read, well written, very understandable for methodology and hypotheses.

4. Usefulness for the industry: Excellent sense of usability of research results and relevance for company practice, after LBO working capital gets better managed.

The winning essay can be consulted on the BVA website . together with the two other essays reviewed by the BVA jury.

Criteria For Heroes Essay Research Paper Criteria

Criteria For Heroes Essay Research Paper Criteria

Criteria For Heroes Essay, Research Paper

Criteria for Heroes

The ancient Greeks had strict criteria for individuals to follow if they were to be seen as heroes. Above all, a man needed to be a skilled warrior, but this was not the only requirement. To be a hero, a warrior had to respect authority, both governmental and religious. The Greeks gave heroes no room for pride. These men were to be modest, not only giving credit to their culture and the gods for any great deeds they had done, but also accepting everything that happened as Fate, not scenarios they had created for themselves. In other words, they did not make themselves what they were; rather, they had been predestined to become it. The final requirement of being a hero was coolness. Heroes were not permitted to be blinded by rage or have mood swings. In The Iliad, two Greeks are presented to the reader as heroes. They are Achilles and Diomedes. Although they are both good contenders for the title of hero, Diomedes is by far the better of the two. Diomedes is one of the finest and bravest of the Greek warriors. He is respectful to all authority figures and has little or no pride. Always wise and reasonable, he may be the vision of the perfect nobleman.

Both Achilles and Diomedes easily meet the first requirement, that a hero must have skill on the battlefield. Throughout The Iliad, Homer tells of their incredible (though usually god-aided) feats during the many battles of the Trojan War. Perhaps the greatest example of Achilles? fighting skill is when he fights with and kills Hector, the greatest of the Trojan warriors (260-261). However, this fight may have never happened if Athena had not disguised herself as one of Hector?s brothers and convinced him to fight (260). That was not enough though, as Athena then helped Achilles win the fight (260-261). This seems to be the case with all of Achilles? battles. A god, goddess, or gods help him in battle by strengthening and encouraging him and his men, or they rally a Trojan army into entering a futile final battle. Diomedes is also guilty of receiving help from the gods. After praying for Athena?s aid, Diomedes proceeds to not only slay Pandaros (who wounded him earlier) and many other Trojans, but also wound Aeneas in his hip and his mother Aphrodite in her hand (60-64). Later on in the same battle, Diomedes thrusts his spear through the belly of Ares, also done with the help of Athena (73). Another example of Diomedes skill comes when he and Odysseus spy on the Trojan camp. Diomedes goes ahead of Odysseus and strikes down so many Trojans that ?the ground was reddened with blood? (124). Even before this, Diomedes prayed again to Athena for help. It seems no Greek warrior could fight their own battles; instead, they requested help from the gods. This fact makes it difficult to discern the better fighter between Achilles and Diomedes, but the common choice would probably be Achilles because of his legendary status and he was the son of an immortal.

Achilles fails miserably at respecting anyone in authority, whether governmental or religious. He not only disrespects King Agamemnon?s authority, but also the goddess Athena herself. This lack of respect begins when Achilles calls an assembly of the Greeks, something only Agamemnon was able to do (12). He then proceeds to insult the king, telling him he is greedy, shameless, a cheater, and a drunk (14-15). To top it off, Achilles contemplates drawing his sword to strike down Agamemnon, and is only stopped by Athena grabbing his hair (14-15). (Needless to say, killing the leader of your nation would be the ultimate act of disrespect to the government.) Although he does so badly with respect for government authority, Achilles has no problem respecting human religious authority, only because he has no encounters with priests, prophets, and etceteras. However, he does show some disrespect to Athena for stopping his murder of King Agamemnon. Instead of following the goddess? orders whole-heartedly, he does it quite reluctantly and talks back in the process (15). Diomedes is the opposite of Achilles in the area of respect and demonstrates a great respect for government authority. He risks his own life to save the aging Greek commander Nestor and help him escape from Hector after many other Greeks had already fled (94). As far as Diomedes? respect for religious authority, he does not encounter any priests or so on either. He does however, follows Athena?s orders exactly after she tells him not to fight with any of the gods except Aphrodite (who he later wounds in the hand) (60, 64). With Diomedes? complete respect for government authority and following Athena?s orders exactly, it is incredibly easy to see that Diomedes is the better of the two contenders within this requirement.

Humility is another requirement Achilles fails to meet. His excessive pride is seen throughout The Iliad. When he tells Agamemnon that he is withdrawing himself and all his forces from the Trojan War, Achilles makes it sound as if he has done greater things than anyone, putting himself on a pedestal (15). Never does Achilles credit anyone or anything for his success, including the gods. It is always he himself who has done something. Although Achilles is so prideful about his deeds, he is able to accept Fate (somewhat blindly however). As he reprimands his horses as if it were their fault Patroclos was killed, one of them tells Achilles his death is near (235). Achilles tells the horse he knows this, indicating he accepts it (but he may not have remembered earlier advice on how to escape it) (236). Diomedes does not credit himself for his accomplishments. He usually gets around glorifying himself by thanking the gods. Before his ?duel? with Glaucos, Diomedes goes through his lineage, which could be interpreted as crediting previous generations for his skill and success (76). He is seen (with Odysseus) crediting Athena for a successful reconnaissance mission in the Trojan camp (126). As well as being humble, Diomedes accepts fate and acts accordingly. At one point, Agamemnon thinks the war is lost and wishes to return home, but Diomedes declares that the entire Greek force can leave, but he will stay because Troy is fated to fall (102-103). Achilles? pride contributes to his downfall (not mentioned in The Iliad), and it also shows Diomedes to have far less hubris than his egotistical fellow Greek warrior.

Coolness may be the requirement Achilles is furthest from meeting. Almost every time his name is mentioned, he is in some fit of rage. His very first tantrum is when he about kills Agamemnon, only being stopped by Athena (14-15). His next episode of anger comes after the death of Patroclos, but it is actually helpful to the Greeks. Achilles charges over the battlefield, destroying all Trojan warriors he crossed paths with (239-244). The final act of Achilles? great anger is after he kills Hector. Achilles is still deeply hurt by the death of his friend Patroclos, so he drags Hector?s body behind his chariot (after allowing other Greeks to pierce it with spears), mutilating it (262-263). Diomedes has only one fit of anger, but this could be blamed on Athena rather than poor anger-management techniques. Fueled by divine strength, Diomedes begins to single-handedly drive back the Trojans (60-63). He is about to kill Aeneas, but Aphrodite saves her son, angering Diomedes, who thrusts his spear into her hand (63-64). Throughout the rest of The Iliad, Diomedes is portrayed as a cool-headed individual. This trait may be best exhibited in the nighttime spying mission with Odysseus in which he completes the mission because he keeps calm and does not become fueled by rage (115-126). Diomedes is obviously the cooler-headed between himself and Achilles, who was always losing his temper at one thing or another.

The ancient Greeks had strict criteria for individuals to follow if they were to be seen as heroes. Those requirements were skill in battle, respect for authority, humility, and coolness under fire. Not many men met all requirements, including Achilles, but they were still viewed as heroes. Between Achilles and Diomedes, Diomedes was the better choice for the title of hero. He was one of the finest Greek soldiers. Diomedes was respectful of authority, humble about his successes, and was very levelheaded. Achilles had great fighting skill as well; however, he had trouble respecting authority and keeping his cool, both results of his excessive pride. If Achilles had not been so prideful, he could have been a much greater warrior and hero, perhaps achieving status equal to the gods. He simply had too much pride. Diomedes was humble; therefore, it was easier for him to respect authority and keep a level head.

the criterias for hereos

Important Criteria for Racial Identification

Important Criteria for Racial Identification

Racial identification is made on the basis of a number of external and internal physical characteristics. The external physical characteristics are phenotypic characters, which are mostly adaptive in nature, but the internal physical characteristics are genotypic characters, which are strictly hereditary and non-adaptive.

Modem genetics has provided much information regarding the bodily characteristics of man. It has found that phenotypic characters may not tally with genotypic characters when recessive genes are present in the body. As a matter of fact, importance should be given on the genotypic characters while studying the racial criteria.

Previous works on this line were chiefly centred round the external physical characters because the former workers believed those characters as hereditary. In reality, they were not so. Although at present, the views of the scientists have broadened and they have been able to overcome the limitations of their understanding, still we find extensive use of phenotypic characters in racial identification. The study of blood groups, dermatoglyphics etc. are the exceptions.

A single character can never be a reliable criterion, so always more than one character is considered for racial classification. On the other hand, adequate number of people is required for the survey. Since some features vary with age and sex of the individuals, it is better to make a comparison among the individuals of same age and sex.

W.C. Boyd (1950) had pointed out a number of selective guidelines for choosing racial criterion, which may be cited in the following ways:

(i) The criterion must be objective in order to eliminate an investigator’s bias in identifying and classifying the concerned traits.

(ii) The criterion should be non-adaptive to put a guard against natural selection.

(iii) The criterion must be free from environmental modification.

(iv) The criterion should have a little scope of mutation. Because high frequency of mutation may show considerable variation of a trait, time to time in a population.

(v) The criterion should be simple in nature, which can be controlled by a known genetic mechanism.

All these criteria for racial discrimination may be divided into three categories. The first category includes some common variable phenotypic characters whose hereditary mechanism is neither simple, nor perfectly known.

For example, the hair colour, skin colour, nose form, facial form etc. Some of these characters can be described after critical visual observations, viz. Hair colour, nasal bridge etc. Others demand instrumental measurements along with visual observation.

The second category of criteria considers some physiological characters where genetic process behind the traits is quite well known. A few of these traits are ABO blood group, MN blood group etc. The third category shows some rare genetic traits like colour blindness, some abnormal traits of human blood etc. which occur in low frequency.

However, some of the important criteria as considered in racial identification have been illustrated in the following ways:

Skin Colour:

A large number of granules are found to persist in the deep layer of the epidermis. These are known as melanin pigment. Varying frequencies of melanin pigments are responsible for the variation of the skin colour. The melanin is said to have some protective power.

Continuous exposure to the sun develops more and more melanin pigments, which results in dark skin colour. Naturally white skin possesses lesser number of pigments. But this skin with lesser number of pigments is the best for holding the heat in the body. In fact, the higher concentration of melanin pigments can protect melanoderms from the strong rays of the sun and less concentration of melanin pigments can protect leucoderms from the cold by restoration of heat in the body.

It has been noted that ultraviolet rays of sunlight stimulate epidermal cells of the skin to produce more granules or melanin pigments for making the complexion more dark. The process will not operate if the direct sunlight is cut off from the body of the person concerned with the help of any obstruction.

The skin is composed of two layers-the epidermis and the dermis. The skin pigments or melanin are found to be distributed in the epidermis or upper layer where blood supply is absent. The colour of the skin varies to protect against the scorching rays of the sun as well as to restore the heat of the body depending on the environment.

But it is a matter of surprise that these different shades of skin colour cannot be generalized with geographic and climatic conditions. For example, we find the dark- skinned Negroes of Congo basin, pale yellow-skinned people of Borneo and cinnamon-coloured people of Amazon Valley of South America who live under more or less similar geographical conditions.

On the basis of these findings we assume that the earliest men had an intermediate skin colour instead of white or black. In course of time, probably the genes for skin colour were changed by mutation and brought variations in skin colour according to the environment.

Gradually some of the variations were selected by the nature; they outlived the rest. The sexual selection had also played an important role to accelerate the process. Ultimately in different parts of the world specific skin colours developed suited to the particular environment.

The people of the world can be classified into three major groups on the basis of skin colour:

Leucoderms or White skinned people:

The Europeans are the best example of this group. But most of the Western Asiatics, North Africans and Polynesians also belong to this group where skin colour varies from pinkish-white to light brown shades. Besides, the brown-skinned people like Hamites, Indo-Dravidian, etc. have also been included to this group.

Xanthoderms or Yellow-skinned people:

The Asiatic Mongoloids are the best example of this group. Some Amerinds, Bushmen and Hottentots also show a yellow tinge in their skin colour.

Melanoderms or Black-skinned people:

The Negroids are the best representative of this group. Some of them show an absolute dark colour of skin and others have a variable skin ranging from dark chocolate brown to many other shades of dark brown. The Papuans, Melanesians, Pre-Dravidians, etc. are the appropriate examples of this group.


Hair is the most convenient and striking character in racial classification. This criterion for racial discrimination is very old, as far back as 1820. It provides the basis for a primary classification of present-day races in the world. Studies have been made on different characteristics of hair such as the form, colour, texture, quantity, cross-section and hair whorl.

The hair can be divided into three types on the basis of hair form.

a) Leiotrichy or straight hair:

This type of hair form is found among the Mongoloid people. The form is again sub-divided into three types, which are as follows:

This form is usually thick, coarse, straight and stiff

This form is thin and soft.

This form of hair has a tendency to become wavy. The wave lengths are usually long.

b) Cymotrichy or wavy form of hair:

This type of hair form is widely distributed in the places like Western Asia, parts of northeastern Africa, Europe, etc. The people of White race, for example, Mediterranean, Alpine, Nordic, etc. show this form of hair. Moreover, this form occurs among the secondary races of hybridized origin.

Cymotrichy can be further subdivided in three types, which are as follows:

This type shows smaller wavelength which lie on one plane only.

This type shows narrow waves with strong curvatures. But the waves lie on one plane.

This type shows strong spirals and the curvatures do not lie in one plane.

c) Ulotrichy or woolly form of hair:

This form of hair shows a considerable range of variation.

It is available among the Negroes, Andamanese, Bushman, Papuans, Melanesians, etc. and can be subdivided in the following ways:

This sub-type shows short and deep waves but not in the form of complete spiral.

ii) Loose Frizzles:

This sub-type of hair presents circular and flat spirals.

iii) Thick Frizzles:

This sub-type also shows circular and flat spirals, but in this case the spirals are thickly set.

In this sub-type, hair remains highly rolled like small knots and appears to be separated by bare spaces on the head. This form of hair is popularly known as peppercorn, which is found among the Bushmen.

In the study of hair form, scholars have tried to find out the relationship between hair form and climatic conditions. Leiotrichous or straight hair is found mostly in dry and cold climate. Ulotrichous or woolly form of hair is easily available in the moist and warm climate.

It has also been noted that there are certain groups of people who live in moist and warm climate but show straight hair. The best examples are the American Indian groups of the Amazon basin, the Malays of Java, Borneo and Malaya. The facts suggest that the hair form is probably non-adaptive in character, so it is affected very little by environmental condition.

Hair Colour:

The colour of hair shows a wide range of variation among the population of the world. The structure of hair includes a hair-shaft which consists of three parts, namely, the thin un-pigmented outer layer, the cortex and the medulla or pith. The colour of hair is obtained for the presence of granular or non-granular pigments.

Such pigments are commonly found in the cortex, but sometimes they are also present in the medulla of hair-shaft. Presence of brown or black pigments produces wide variations of black hair. A red-gold pigment is responsible for different golden shades in hair. But the grey colour of the hair appears for the reflection of light from un-pigmented portions of the hair-shaft. The environmental influence is not remarkable in case of hair colour.

Dark hair colour is found everywhere in the world. It is very common in occurrence whereas the brown colour of hair is not at all common. Among the Mediterranean, hair- colour IS relatively darker than the Northern Europeans who show a variable colour, ranging from light brown to reddish.

Again, some Negro population of Africa and Melanesia show yellow colour of hair. Most of the Oceanic Negroes possess reddish hair in their childhood, which transforms into dark brown colour at the stage of maturity. But this should not be confused with grey hair, which is a sign of old age.

During old age, dark colour of hair invariably turns—grey. Because, the medullary spaces in hair shaft increase with age. At the same time absorption of some pigments takes place in the hair-shaft, which brings the change of hair colour – a grey shed is produced. This change is an important common phenomenon.

Texture of hair may be divided in three categories—course, medium and fine. Scientifically Garn has studied the shaft of human head hair. He has come to the inference that the thickness of hair shaft varies between 25 / u (/ u = mu) to 125/ u. An arbitrary classification of head hair has been proposed by him in the following ways: Fine hair = X = 56/ u Medium hair = 57/ u – 84/ u Coarse hair = 85/ u —X For example, the Chinese and Japanese people as the members of Mongoloid race show coarse hair. The white men of Caucasoid race possess medium hair.

The quantity of hair is usually determined by visual observation and described with the terms like scanty medium and rich. The same terms are used for head hair, body hair, beard and moustache. Among the Mongoloids and Negroids, the hairs are sparsely distributed on face and body. Caucasoid race or white people show richness of body and facial hair.

The hair whorl is observed on the occiput of the head. This can also be taken as one of the factor for studying the nature of the hair of an individual. Two types of hair whorl have been distinguished on the basis of direction—clock-wise and anti-clockwise.

Normally a person possesses one whorl though double whorls are also not rare. But three or more whorls are very rarely found. As regard to the inheritance of this character, the clock-wise hair whorl dominates over the anti-clockwise hair whorl.

In scientific study, the cross-section of human hair can be of two types-circular and oval or elliptical. The circular cross-section is found mainly among the Mongoloid people possessing the straight hair, while oval type of cross-section is prevalent among the Negroid people possessing the Ulotrichy hair form.

Recently the cross-section of hair has lost its significance in racial discrimination as studies have shown that both the oval and circular cross-sections may be found in the hair of same head However, beside the cross-section of hair, the weight of the hair, the longitudinal section of hair and some other characters may also be taken into consideration for studying racial discrimination.

Head Form:

The form of head is the most valuable character in racial discrimination. Anthropologists study the head thoroughly as it is relatively independent of environmental fluctuations. To examine the head form one has to look at it from the above. The head shape presents varieties of contour like oval long, pentagonal, narrow, etc. But such illustrations of head are not at all suitable for statistical treatment. Some accurate measurements are required in this connection.

However, measurements on head and skull were first standardized at the Frankfurt Congress, held in 1882. From that time nineteenth century) up to the present day, the cephalic index is universally measured in the study of the head form.

An eminent Swedish anthropologist Anders Retzins had established this principle to observe the proportion of the breadth to the length of the head, in classification of human race.

The ratio of these measurements is called the index and the cephalic index can be illustrated in the following ways:

Length – (Cephalic Index) = Breadth of the Head/ Length of the Head x 100

The Cephalic index thus indicates the ratio of the maximum breadth to the maximum length, which is multiplied by 100. But it does not provide any idea regarding the contour or real form of the head. However, a classification according to cephalic index has been mentioned here which is known as Martin’s classification.

Hyper-dolichocephalic (very long and narrow) X — 69.9


Mesocephalic (medium) 76.0 — 80.9

Brachycephalic (short or broad) 81.0 — 85.5

Hyperbrachycephalic (very short and broad) 85.6 — X

The height of head is also required to know for finding out the relations in the length-height and breadth-height indices respectively. The classifications of the head in respect of these two indices have been given by Martin in the following ways:

Tapeinocephal X —78.9

Metricephal 79.0 — 84.9

Acrocephal 85.0 — X

Our knowledge based on numerous available data from the various parts of Europe suggests that early man of prehistoric period was generally dolichocephalic. The brachycephalic heads developed later, in the Upper Palaeolithic Age of Europe as a result of repeated mutations and other factors. This gradual brachycephaltzation has been described by R. B. dixon as a universal phenomenon. It has also been stated that the development of head shape is controlled by the Mendelian laws of inheritance.

The head form can be modified in many ways with some environmental factors. For example, some tribal folks among the American Indians keep head under prolonged pressure by a special device for bringing permanent change in the shape of their head. It is an evidence of artificial deformation of the head. Prof. A. Ivanovsky has studied a few people of Southern Russia where malnutrition has brought considerable changes in the form of the head.

Franz Boas noticed a good deal of variations in the head form among the children of European immigrants into the United States; the features vary from those of their parents. Dr. H. L. Shapiro also found that the head form becomes shorter and broader among the off springs of Japanese immigrants who settled in the Hawaiian Islands. Sexual variation of the head-form is the other important factor, which has to be considered in this respect.

It is very difficult to get an accurate head-height measurement in the living subject. There is also a wide range of variations. Unfortunately, the available data on height indices are not adequate to derive any conclusion in a definite way. Further, in many cases, brachycephalic parents are found to produce dolichocephalic off springs. So this criterion should be used in association with several other reliable criteria for racial discrimination.

Face Form:

We generally recognize a man by looking at his face, which possesses many distinguishing characteristic features. The faces are of different shapes as oval, round, square or pentagonal. But actual shape of a face can be better understood when it is expressed in terms of relation between the breadth and length.

Face length is measured from nasion to gnathion. The nasion is the upper end of internasal suture where it meets with the frontal bone. Gnathion is the lowest point in the median line of the mandible or the lower jaw, i.e. the gnathion point.

The greatest face breadth is obtained by measuring the distance across the cheekbones. It is called Bizygomatic breadth or maximum breadth of Zygomatic Arch. The facial index is found out by dividing the length by its width and thereafter multiplying the quotient by 100.

A broad face is usually associated with a brachycephal and similarly a long face is associated with long head or dolichocephal. Though this is a harmonic relation between the head and the face, but not universal in occurrence. The point can be illustrated with the Armenoids who possess long and relatively narrow faces along with relatively short and broad heads. Again, a long head with broad face is available among the Eskimos. These are the examples of disharmonic relation between head and face. In early days, the Cro-Magnon people were in possession of this type of disharmonic face.

Another typical feature of the face is prognathism which can be described as the protrusion of the jaw. When the face does not show any protrusion, it is known as orthognathism. Prognathism is common among the Black races of Africa and Ocenia; it is especially well marked among the Negroes and Australian aborigines. The modern people are generally orthognathous, only a few of them may show a little prognathism.

When the alveolar margins of upper and lower jaw exhibit a projection, it is termed as alveolar prognathism. The forward projection of the facial region is known as the facial prognathism. Apes and monkeys present both of these kinds of prognathism. Among the human population, the Mongoloids and some white people show slight or moderate alveolar prognathism but facial prognathism is almost absent in them.

Although the form of face is considered as an important criterion but it has got a limited scope in racial classification. The facial index and other features vary with the development of age and these are easily affected by the factors like sex, function, etc.

For example, the females almost invariably show shorter and comparatively broader faces than the males of the same ethnic groups. The functional variations often reflect on the face. Besides, the hereditary nature of the facial characteristics are not perfectly known which may result in different shapes such as short, broad, long, narrow, etc. So, it is not at all wise to depend on this factor as a racial criterion. It is better to use this factor in association with other reliable factors for racial discrimination.


The nose presents many interesting features regarding racial discrimination. The proportion of nose can easily be found out by actual measurements, particularly considering its breadth in relation to its length. But some parts of the nose cannot be measured at all; they have to be described in simple ways.

The Nasal Index:

The nasal index is expressed as the percentage of the breadth in relation to its length. On the skeleton, the length is measured from the nasion point (where the internasal suture touches the frontal bone) to a point just at the base of the nasal spine. The breadth is the maximum distance on the nasal opening in the skull. In case of living subject, the length is to be taken from nasion to the subnasale where the nasal septum touches the upper lip. The nasal breadth is the highest distance between the two alare or two nasal wings in natural condition. As a matter of fact, the nasal index on skeleton and the nasal index on the living subject never correspond to one another.

The Mongoloid people possess short and moderately broad nose; their nasal index takes them to the group of mesorrhine. The Caucasoid people of Asia show the characteristics of leptorrhine nose while the white people of Europe present typical narrow nose. The Negro nose is broad and short for which it has been grouped as platyrrhine. The Australian aborigines also show a clearly marked platyrrhine nose. A. C. Haddon had wrote “speaking generally, the leucoderms are leptorrhine, the Xanthoderms mesorrhine (but the Eskimos are leptorrhine) and the melanoderms platyrrhme”.

It may be granted that the nasal index is dependent on environmental conditions. Many anthropologists realize that the natural selection has played an important role in narrowing or widening the nostrils. The people with broad nose and wide nasal aperture generally live under hot moist conditions where they can inhale large quantities of warm and moist air without causing any harm to their respiratory organs.

On the contrary the narrower and longer nose is more effective in warming the cold air before it passes on to the lungs. So, the Arctic Eskimos show hyperleptrrhine nose while the equatorial Negroes possess hyperplatyrrhine nose. In India, Aryan-speakers were invaded sometime in the past by leptorrhine.

For this reason the country has exhibited some groups of narrow- nosed people in temperate zones. But, the data in connection with the hereditary nature of nose form are inadequate in order to reach at the right conclusion. Therefore it is not wise to attach much importance with the nose as a single point for racial discrimination.

Parts of a Nose:

Among the various parts of a nose, the nasal root is marked at the meeting point of the nasal bones with the frontal bone of the skull, which is known as the nasion. Generally the nasal root shows a depression which may be described as shallow, medium, or deep. The two nasal bones join together to form an angle along with their long sides and constitute the nasal bridge. The nasal bridge on living body extends from the below the nasion to the tip of the nose.

The nasal bridge is often described as shallow, medium or high. In profile view, the bridge looks straight, concave, convex or concavo-convex. It may be mentioned here that the primitive people of early period were the representatives of low and broad nasal roots as well as nasal bridges.

A few of these characteristics are found to survive among some of the African tribes. The Europeans usually show high and narrow nasal roots as well as nasal bridges while the people of Eastern Asia project an intermediate form of nasal roots and bridges.

There are several other minor features associated with the study of the nose. The tip of the noses can be classified as bluntly rounded or sharply pointed; thick or thin. The horizontal nasal septum can be directed upwards or downwards. Besides, this septum may be straight, concave or convex from the profile view.

The wings of the nose or alare may be thin and compressed, broad and flaring or intermediate. The diameter of the nostrils can also be studied as oval or rounded. For example, the Negro nose is short and very broad with medium depressed root, straight or concaves bridge, thick bulbous tip and very thick flaring alare.

The nose of Australian aborigines differs from Negro type by more deeply depressed root. The typical Mediterranean people are the representative of leptorrhine who possess a straight nasal bridge of medium height and a narrow root with compressed medium-spread alare. But the nose of Nordic people is higher, longer and narrower with pinched wings. Here also we find inadequate data to draw any conclusive remarks on racial discrimination.


Sometimes the eyes possess certain definite features in discrimination of the races of man. E. A .Hooton had mentioned only two sharply contrasted varieties of eyes in modern man—the Mongoloid eye and the non-Mongoloid eye. In Mongoloid eyes the palpeberal fissure is oblique and the outer angle of the eye is higher than the inner angle. The eye opening or slit is narrow. External comer of the eye opening is elevated so that slants outward and downward. The inner epicanthus (epicanthic) or complete Mongoloid fold is the characteristic feature, which is found in the population in varying degrees.

The comers of the open portion of the eyes are called canthus, which are of two types—inner and outer. Among some specific groups of people the skin-fold hangs over the free edge of the entire upper lid of the eye. It may also extend from outer canthus to the inner canthus. The feature has been described as the Mongoloid fold and found to occur among the Mongoloid people, irrespective of age groups. Young, middle-aged and old persons, everybody exhibit this fold in the same way.

The inner epicanthic fold or the inner epicanthus is the most common variety of all eye-folds. The fold starts on the inner or sometimes medial part of the upper eyelid and covers the free edge of the inner angle of the eye. Sometimes it is found to extend on to the cheek. Although variations are found with age and sex, it is most prominent among the infant, children and women. Another variety of eye-fold is the external epicanthus or external epicanthic fold. This fold starts on the middle portion of the upper eyelid and extends below the outer portion of the upper eye lid, covering the outer comer of the eye.

It is frequently observed among elderly male of different non-Mongoloid populations. These are nothing but a slag skin, devoid of elasticity. It appears as a legacy of age factor. Apart from these two kinds of eye-fold, sometimes a skin is found to hang over the central part of the upper eyelid covering the edge of that region; both the inner and outer comers of eye remain uncovered. This type of fold is known as median or cover fold.

Mongoloid eye with inner epicanthus is not only typical to Mongoloid people, all people having Mongoloid admixture show this fold. Therefore inner epicanthic fold possesses a great racial significance unlike the other two eye-folds. The non-Mongoloid eye is wide, straight and open; eye-fold is absent. African Negro, especially Bushmen and Hottentot occasionally present this type of fold.

Eye colour depends on the quantity of pigment present in front and back of the iris. The front layer of iris may or may not be pigmented while back part of the iris has a double layer of pigmented cells. This pigmentation is also an important criterion for racial study. It shows a wide range of variation as black, dark brown, light brown, blue brown, and grey brown, blue or grey. Maximum variation has been observed among the people of leucoderms. The Mongoloids and Negroids usually show dark-brown iris.


This important criterion of racial classification is found quite unsatisfactory as affected greatly by the environmental conditions. An unfavourable environment keeps the people underdeveloped; people show increased stature under improved and favourable environmental set up. This proposition has been justified with the people of Limousion district of France and the Yupa Indians of Venezuela. Shapiro studied Japanese immigrants in Hawaii Island where he observed an increase of stature under different environmental condition.

Various research work done by different authorities in this line declare that the stature varies with the differences of occupation, social class, hygienic level and other environmental conditions. Again, environmental and dietetic factors are not solely responsible for the change of stature; the factor of heredity should also be taken into account. In fact, stature is mainly an outcome of hereditary factor but highly influenced by the environmental conditions.

The inheritance of stature follows the general Mendelian rule. It is manifested by the interplay of genes and receives influences from environmental circumstances. In this way stature is a combination of two factors—idiotypical / diotypical (hereditary) factor and paratypical (environmental) factor.

A considerable range of variation (within certain limit) is therefore found among the same group of people. For example, a group of short-statured persons may include some tall statured individuals. Again, a group of tall-statured persons often shows some short statured individuals.

Knowledge of physiology has revealed that the internal secretions of the glands like thymus, pituitary, etc. have a direct influence on the stature of a person. In addition, different life chances, especially the dietetic pattern keeps an impact. But, as a whole, hereditary factor seems to be more powerful than the environmental factor in determination of stature.

The scales as devised by different authorities are given below:


The blood is a genetically determined factor as proved by the modem scientist. Therefore, it has been an important and reliable criterion for racial discrimination. At present this criterion is extensively used in studying the racial groups, racial movements, racial migration etc.


Uppermost surface of the human body is covered with hair and sebaceous (oil) glands. Only exception is the palmar and planter regions, which are continuously corrugated with narrow ridges having certain specific pattern. These patterns are known as dermatoglyphics. Literally, dermatoglyphics means skin carve (derma = skin + glyphic = carve).

Therefore, it stands as the study of ridge patterns in the skin of the fingers, palms, toes and soles. The patterns are permanent and unchangeable throughout the human life. In fact, the pattern develops early in the stage of foetus formation and remains unchanged upto the final disintegration of the skin. But, it may be worn out or damaged due to some external as well as accidental reasons.

Although the finger patterns are used in personal identification for a fairly long period, the scientific study has started only recently, at the end of the nineteenth century. The anthropologists are more concerned with dermatoglyphics in the context of twin diagnosis, paternity diagnosis, primatology, etc.; they are also trying to establish variations in respect of traits among different human populations.

According to Boyd, the dermatoglyphics fulfil many of the conditions for a good racial criterion, as this trait (dermatoglyphics) is non-adaptive as well as resistant to environmental factors. The genetic process behind this trait is not perfectly known but identification of dermatoglyphics is easy without any subjective bias. The ridge patterns can be studied from the different angles applying various methods, but scientists mostly deal with finger patterns and the main line formula of palm.

Finger Patterns:

This pattern has been divided into four main types by Henry, as the arches, loops, true whorls and composites. The composites are the heterogeneous assemblage of patterns. Galton has classified three types of patterns as the arches, hops and whorls.

A loop is one-side-open ridge pattern, which may be open either to the ulnar side or to the radial side and termed as ulnar or radial loop accordingly. It may be noted here that the classic and widely used notations are A = arches; Lr = Loops radial; Lu = Loops ulnar; and W = Whorls.

A number of ridges together makes a pattern when the junction of these ridges shows a triangular island, it is called as triradius. In case of arch, triradius is absent. On the other hand, the whorls possess two triradii and only one triradius is present in loops. In fact, the ridge patterns are identified from the position of triradius.

It is seen mat the loops are more frequent than whorls while me arches are found in small numbers. A gain, the ulnar loops are much frequent than radial loops. Racial variation through fingerprints has been shown in a table.

From the table it has been found that the whorls are most frequent among the Mongoloid population and least among the Caucasoid population. The loops appear more frequently among the Caucasoid people while the Mongoloid and Negroid population show equal frequencies.

Lastly, the arches appear with a very small frequency among the Mongoloid people. It is most frequent among the Negroid people. The Caucasoid population exhibits an intermediate stage. However, three indices are usually calculated depending on the frequency distribution of the different finger patterns, which are as follows:

Palm (Main Line Formula):

Except thumb, at the base of four fingers or digits (II, III, IV, & V), four digital triardii are located which are called as a, b, c, and d in radio-ulnar sequence. The palm is divided into 13 regions each of which is having a symbol or number for the purpose of making the palmar main lines.

The proxima radiant or upper peak of a digital triradius is directed toward the interior side of the palm and this radiant line is fully traced until it ends to the region of the palm by making the symbol of termination. This line is called the palmar main line.

Thus, four main lines can be obtained being named as A, B, C, and D. The symbols of the four terminating regions of the four main lines develop the main line formula which can be recorded as in the order of D, C, B, and A It should be mentioned that the mainline A is not usually counted in finding out the population variations. The three formulae that are mostly observed in man stand as, 11, 9, 7-, 9, 7, 5-, and 7, 5, 5-. According to Wilder, the European formula is 11, 9, 7-, and; 7, 5, 5-, is the Negro formula.

In India, an anthropologist becomes perplexed by the enormous variations in genetic characters like blood groups, finger or palm prints within the same ethnic strain, whose homogeneity is almost apparent in the morphological and anthropological characters.

Therefore, in this country dermatoglyphics has been extensively studied by the S. S. Sarkar (1954, 1961), D. C. Rife (1953, 1954, and 1958) and others. The aboriginal tribes of India offer a unique field for the study of dermatoglyphics. But the nature of sex difference in dermatoglyphics has not been fully known.

We should remember that in the study of human variation, race is the fundamental concept. It divides mankind into smaller groups on the basis of hereditary physical traits. Therefore, the nature of physical traits in a population is highly valued for determining the membership of the people under a race.

The observable physical traits are equally important as the measurable physical traits. The earlier physical anthropologists used to depend solely on observations and measurements in classifying the human types in drawing their racial histories. The modern physical anthropologists have not abandoned those traditional kinds of observations and measurements, rather they are found to supplement those by the study of blood groups and other bio chemical factors.