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The Irish Civil War occurred following the signing of a treaty between Sinn Fein and the British government. The Anglo-Irish Agreement brought the Irish War of Independence to an end and established the Irish Free State. The civil war caused a split in the nationalist movement between those who supported the Treaty with Britain and those who were opposed. It created deep divisions that lasted in Irish society for decades. The two main political parties since the foundation of the state, Fine Gael and Fianna Fail, are direct descendants from the pro-Treaty and anti-Treaty sides in the civil war. The civil war began as a result of divisions over the Anglo-Irish Treaty. However, other factors also played a role in these divisions. This essay will look at the role the Anglo-Irish Treaty played in bringing about the civil war and what other differences also caused divisions during this period.

The Anglo-Irish Treaty was agreed between Sinn Fein representatives and the British government in December 1921. The signing of the Treaty led to an bitter debate in the Dail before being accepted by a slim majority in January 1922. The divisions in the Dail spilled over into the wider nationalist movement and into the ranks of the IRA. A number of issues in the Anglo-Irish Treaty caused disagreements the most prominent being the Oath of Allegiance to the British crown and the partition of Ireland into North and South. The Oath of Allegiance was highly objectionable to many republicans and was the most divisive issue in the Treaty. Those opposed could not understand why they should be forced to swear allegiance to a British king that they had fought against only weeks earlier. For those who were seeking an independent republic swearing an oath of allegiance to a foreign king went against everything they believed in. The inclusion of the oath of allegiance was to be a significant contributing factor to the divisions that caused the civil war.

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BBC ON THIS DAY

1985: Anglo-Irish agreement signed

Britain and the Republic of Ireland have signed a deal giving Dublin a role in Northern Ireland for the first time in more than 60 years.

Britain's Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher said it brought new hope of ending the violence in Northern Ireland.

But Treasury minister Ian Gow - one of Mrs Thatcher's closest political allies - has resigned in protest at the deal which is also opposed by the Ulster Unionists.

In a letter, Mr Gow told Mrs Thatcher the government's change of policy on Northern Ireland would "prolong and not diminish the agony of Ulster."

The Anglo-Irish Agreement was signed by Margaret Thatcher and Irish Prime Minister Garret FitzGerald at Hillsborough Castle in County Down, Northern Ireland.

It sets up a framework for regular conferences between British and Irish ministers to discuss matters affecting Northern Ireland.

However, if a devolved government were established in Northern Ireland, matters transferred to its power would no longer fall under the remit of the conferences.

That is being seen as an inducement for unionists who want to remain part of the United Kingdom and keep Dublin at bay.

But, for the first time, the British Government has officially committed to promoting legislation for a united Ireland if a majority is in favour.

The deal has been met with anger and bitterness by the majority loyalist community in Northern Ireland.

The 15 Ulster Unionist MPs have accused Mrs Thatcher of treachery and have said they will resign unless a referendum is held on the agreement.

However, opposition leaders at Westminster have pledged their support and the government seems certain to secure a big majority when the deal comes up for approval.

Irish MPs also have to approve the agreement which will be reviewed after three years.

Реферат: The British Irish Conflict Essay Research Paper - Сайт рефератов, докладов, сочинений, дипломны

The British Irish Conflict Essay Research Paper

The Irish-British Conflict Throughout history there has been an ongoing saga of war prejudice and hatredbetween Ireland and Great Britain. Lately they have been going back and forth over thecontrol and ownership of Northern Ireland. But within the last decade after forty years ofintense fighting there have been the greatest strides toward peace on both sides of thefighting. The relationship between Ireland Northern Ireland and Great Britain has alwaysbeen a volatile one marred with shooting bombings riots assassinations and riots. Thebasis of the fighting has been over the control and ownership of Northern Ireland. Themain split is between religious groups. The Catholics of Northern Ireland want to join theRepublic of Ireland and form one independent island of Ireland. The Protestants ofNorthern Ireland want to remain under direct British rule. (Encyclopedia Britanica Page290) The roots of conflict go back over four hundred years. When King Henry VIIIdeclared himself King of Ireland it started centuries of British rule. This came after morethan two centuries of increasing British rule and ownership in the country. Later on during the rule of Elizabeth I the religious differences widened in Ireland between theIrish Catholic and the British Protestants. Her reign also brought widespread rebellionsand violent protests directly related to the religious differences in the region. (WWW.CNN.COM) British oppression only worsened as time went on. Through the seventeenth andeighteenth centuries the British passed laws against the Irish Catholics. Some of theseincluded preventing the Irish from bearing arms restrict their rights to education stoppingthem from buying and holding land and banning them from serving in the army holdingpublic office entering the legal profession becoming Military Police or voting.(WWW.CNN.COM) The Irish continued to oppose the British government but nothing came out of ituntil 1919. The Irish Republican Army and their political party counterpart Sinn Fien was formed in 1919 dedicated to fight forcibly for complete independence from Britishrule. The IRA started a guerilla war in 1919 to win independence from Great Britain. Through 1919 and into 1920 the IRA harassed the police and military with ambushes sudden raids and assassinations. To satisfy the IRA’s demands the British governmentpassed the Government of Ireland Act. The act split Ireland into two separate states eachwith a limited power of self-government. The top six counties of Ireland broke off andformed Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland was satisfied with the treaty because there wasstill a Protestant majority. However the tale was quite different in Southern Ireland where the catholic majority wanted more freedom from Britain and rejected the act. Thefighting continued until July of 1921. The British Parliament passed the Anglo-IrishTreaty. The treaty signed on December sixth 1921 made Ireland a dominion that is aself-governing country which agreed to swear allegiance to the British Crown. Thedominion was called the Irish Free State. (The World Book Multimedia Encyclopedia) This treaty split the IRA. The part that accepted it became the Army of The IrishFree State. The others that rejected the treaty were called the Irregulars. The Irregularsrejected the treaty because it did not grant Ireland complete independence from Britainand complete union with Northern Ireland. As a result of this a civil war broke out in theIrish Free State in which the Irregulars lost but still operated as an underground secretorganization. (The World Book Multimedia Encyclopedia) Finally in 1949 the Irish Free State renounced its dominion status and declareditself the Republic of Ireland. But Northern Ireland remained under British rule. Becauseof the Republic of Ireland’s new independence the IRA was reunited. The IRA thencarried out continual raids on British installations in Northern Ireland trying to bringNorthern Ireland into a complete union with the rest of Ireland and to humiliate theBritish and Irish governments. (The World Book Multimedia Encyclopedia) However the real fighting did not begin until 1968 when the British governmentattempted to break up a Catholic civil rights demonstration. The demonstration soonturned into a riot that set off the next thirty years of fighting and violence known simplyas “The Troubles”. (WWW.CNN.COM) During 1968 and 1969 a deep split developed in the IRA over strategy and tactics. The more powerful of the two groups that came out of the split was the provisional IRA. This group is filled with younger people who are more geared toward getting what theywant through violence. They are an aggressive group that carries out the bombings andviolence associated with the their movement to reunite Northern Ireland with the Republicof Ireland. They get funding from at home and abroad. The other group that came out ofthe split was the Official IRA. They also work to unite Northern Ireland and the Republicof Ireland; they just use a different method. They get what they want by using politics andgoing after the base of the matter. They are mainly older members that focus on the basisof social change and use very limited violence to achieve these goals.(WWW.CNN.COM) Things were not real violent after the original start of the “Troubles” until bloodySunday. In 1972 British troops opened fire on a peaceful civil rights demonstration killing fourteen people. Six months later the Irish fought back with twenty-two separate

bombs that killed eleven people in Belfast beginning a long pattern of shootings bombings and assassinations. In the face of this Britain declared complete control ofNorthern Ireland although they could not set up a permanent government due to violenceand fighting. (WWW.CNN.COM) In 1973 the Sunningdale Agreement was produced by three way talks. Theagreement gave the Republic of Ireland some government power in Northern Ireland butbecause of a protestant uprising and out lash of violence the Sunningdale agreement failedand the fighting continued. (WWW.CNN.COM) Throughout the seventies and eighties the conflict between the Irish catholics andthe British Protestantsin Northern Ireland has only gotten worse. Fighting has continuedover the control over Northern Ireland with both sides thinking that they are in the right. Through this time the Official IRA posed little threat to the peace efforts because of theirnon-violent attitude. Unfortunately the Provisional IRA’s strong ties to Sinn Fien hasoften proved deadly for Northern Irish even innocent ones. They have continuallydisrupted relations between the Republic of Ireland Northern Ireland and Britain. (TheWorld Book Multimedia Encyclopedia) It wasn’t until 1985 that something in the form of progress came about. Britainand Ireland signed a pact that is known as the Anglo-Irish Agreement. The pact allowedthe Republic of Ireland to have an advisory role but no direct powers in NorthernIreland’s government. Later in 1993 Irish leader Albert Reynolds and British PrimeMinister John Major issued the Downing Street Declaration. It gave the people inNorthern Ireland the right to choose their own fate. It also offered Sinn Fien a seat at thepeace talk if violence by the IRA ended. In August of that year the IRA issued a cease-fire. British Loyalists followed suit and agreed to lay down theirweapons.(WWW.CNN.COM) So in 1996 peace talks were well under way. Unfortunately when U.S. SenatorGeorge Mitchell of Maine and chairman of the peace talks proposed a surrender ofguerilla weapons the IRA refused and answered with a one ton bomb that killed twopeople in London. The talks resumed later on without the Sinn Fien and theIRA.(WWW.CNN.COM) The largest peace effort yet has happened in the past year. Britain announced thatit would proceed with an independent inquiry into the Bloody Sunday killings of 1972.Small violent eruptions between assorted military groups killed 18 people in protest. Acting against this violence the British Prime Minister sets a deadline of April ninth 1998 for a peace agreement. An agreement was reached in the multi-party talks whichincluded the Sinn Fien after the IRA restored its cease-fire in July of 1997. (WWW.CNN.COM) The agreement is a major step toward a more peaceful union between the twogovernments and three regions. The agreement first calls for the accelerated release ofany war criminals that belong to the groups that are maintaining the cease-fire. But themain point of the agreement involves the future of the Northern Ireland government. Theagreements calls for the people of Northern Island to decide whether or not to sty a partof Great Britain or to unite with the Republic of Ireland and form one Ireland. (WWW.CNN.COM) There are many parts of the agreement that have to do with the relationshipsbetween Ireland Northern Ireland and Britain. First it establishes a North-South Councilof Ministers that would work together on issues like transportation and agriculturebetween the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. The Republic also agreed to add aconstitutional amendment dropping their territorial claim the six counties of NorthernIreland. The agreement also calls for the paramilitary groups that planned all the terroristattacks during the preceding three decades to give up their weapons over two years starting in June. Also in the agreement is a promise to drop all previous laws and customsthat generally discriminate against the Irish Catholics in Northern Ireland and visa-versa inthe Republic of Ireland. (WWW.CNN.COM) The agreement was enacted after a resounding yes vote on both sides of the Irishborder marking the first time in eighty years that people on both sides of the island votedtogether in a single vote. (WWW.CNN.COM) Throughout history Ireland has been marred by violence and hatred. They havebeen fighting an ancient war of religion and beliefs raging against each other for no reasonbut to keep control of what is now Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland has been abreeding ground of fighting bombings assassinations and violence. History has provedto us that territory can be the cause of so much death. The fighting over Northern Irelandand hatred between the Irish Catholics and English Protestants in Northern Ireland hasresulted in a total of three thousand two hundred and forty-nine people dying. (TimeMagazine Page 38) You can’t help but ask yourself why. It is hard to understand whysomeone would want to take another person’s life over some land and control. But ithappens everyday and has been happening for over four hundred years in NorthernIreland. Hopefully through these recent peace talks and the recent peace agreement allthe fighting can come to an end and the people of Northern Ireland can decide their ownfate instead of two other countries fighting over them. Maybe through this they will beable to be the masters of their own destiny. Sometimes we must step back and letsomeone settle his own problems. If the majority of the people in Northern Ireland want aunited Ireland then so be it. Leave it up to the people it effects the people who have seenthe death and destruction who have lost family and friends in the seemingly senselessfighting.

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The British Irish Conflict

The British Irish Conflict

The Irish-British Conflict Throughout history there has been an ongoing saga of war, prejudice. and hatredbetween Ireland and Great Britain. Lately they have been going back and forth over thecontrol and ownership of Northern Ireland. But within the last decade, after forty years ofintense fighting, there have been the greatest strides toward peace on both sides of thefighting. The relationship between Ireland, Northern Ireland, and Great Britain has alwaysbeen a volatile one, marred with shooting, bombings. riots. assassinations, and riots. Thebasis of the fighting has been over the control and ownership of Northern Ireland. Themain split is between religious groups. The Catholics of Northern Ireland want to join theRepublic of Ireland and form one independent island of Ireland. The Protestants ofNorthern Ireland want to remain under direct British rule. (Encyclopedia Britanica Page290) The roots of conflict go back over four hundred years. When King Henry VIIIdeclared himself King of Ireland, it started centuries of British rule. This came after morethan two centuries of increasing British rule and ownership in the country. Later on,during the rule of Elizabeth I. the religious differences widened in Ireland between theIrish Catholic and the British Protestants. Her reign also brought widespread rebellionsand violent protests directly related to the religious differences in the region. (WWW.CNN.COM) British oppression only worsened as time went on. Through the seventeenth andeighteenth centuries, the British passed laws against the Irish Catholics. Some of theseincluded preventing the Irish from bearing arms. restrict their rights to education. stoppingthem from buying and holding land, and banning them from serving in the army. holdingpublic office, entering the legal profession. becoming Military Police. or voting.(WWW.CNN.COM) The Irish continued to oppose the British government. but nothing came out of ituntil 1919. The Irish Republican Army. and their political party counterpart, Sinn Fien,was formed in 1919, dedicated to fight forcibly for complete independence from Britishrule. The IRA started a guerilla war in 1919 to win independence from Great Britain. Through 1919 and into 1920. the IRA harassed the police and military with ambushes,sudden raids, and assassinations. To satisfy the IRA’s demands, the British governmentpassed the Government of Ireland Act. The act split Ireland into two separate states. eachwith a limited power of self-government. The top six counties of Ireland broke off andformed Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland was satisfied with the treaty because there wasstill a Protestant majority. However, the tale was quite different in Southern Ireland,where the catholic majority wanted more freedom from Britain and rejected the act. Thefighting continued until July of 1921. The British Parliament passed the Anglo-IrishTreaty. The treaty, signed on December sixth, 1921, made Ireland a dominion, that is aself-governing country which agreed to swear allegiance to the British Crown. Thedominion was called the Irish Free State. (The World Book Multimedia Encyclopedia) This treaty split the IRA. The part that accepted it became the Army of The IrishFree State. The others that rejected the treaty were called the Irregulars. The Irregularsrejected the treaty because it did not grant Ireland complete independence from Britainand complete union with Northern Ireland. As a result of this, a civil war broke out in theIrish Free State, in which the Irregulars lost. but still operated as an underground. secretorganization. (The World Book Multimedia Encyclopedia) Finally, in 1949, the Irish Free State renounced its dominion status and declareditself the Republic of Ireland. But Northern Ireland remained under British rule. Becauseof the Republic of Ireland’s new independence, the IRA was reunited. The IRA thencarried out continual raids on British installations in Northern Ireland trying to bringNorthern Ireland into a complete union with the rest of Ireland, and to humiliate theBritish and Irish governments. (The World Book Multimedia Encyclopedia) However, the real fighting did not begin until 1968 when the British governmentattempted to break up a Catholic civil rights demonstration. The demonstration soonturned into a riot that set off the next thirty years of fighting and violence. known simplyas “The Troubles”. (WWW.CNN.COM) During 1968 and 1969, a deep split developed in the IRA over strategy and tactics. The more powerful of the two groups that came out of the split was the provisional IRA. This group is filled with younger people who are more geared toward getting what theywant through violence. They are an aggressive group that carries out the bombings andviolence associated with the their movement to reunite Northern Ireland with the Republicof Ireland. They get funding from at home and abroad. The other group that came out ofthe split was the Official IRA. They also work to unite Northern Ireland and the Republicof Ireland; they just use a different method. They get what they want by using politics andgoing after the base of the matter. They are mainly older members that focus on the basisof social change and use very limited violence to achieve these goals.(WWW.CNN.COM) Things were not real violent after the original start of the “Troubles” until bloodySunday. In 1972, British troops opened fire on a peaceful civil rights demonstration,killing fourteen people. Six months later, the Irish fought back with twenty-two separate

bombs that killed eleven people in Belfast, beginning a long pattern of shootings,bombings, and assassinations. In the face of this, Britain declared complete control ofNorthern Ireland, although they could not set up a permanent government due to violenceand fighting. (WWW.CNN.COM) In 1973, the Sunningdale Agreement was produced by three way talks. Theagreement gave the Republic of Ireland some government power in Northern Ireland, butbecause of a protestant uprising and out lash of violence, the Sunningdale agreement failedand the fighting continued. (WWW.CNN.COM) Throughout the seventies and eighties, the conflict between the Irish catholics andthe British Protestantsin Northern Ireland has only gotten worse. Fighting has continuedover the control over Northern Ireland, with both sides thinking that they are in the right. Through this time, the Official IRA posed little threat to the peace efforts because of theirnon-violent attitude. Unfortunately, the Provisional IRA’s strong ties to Sinn Fien hasoften proved deadly for Northern Irish, even innocent ones. They have continuallydisrupted relations between the Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland, and Britain. (TheWorld Book Multimedia Encyclopedia) It wasn’t until 1985 that something in the form of progress came about. Britainand Ireland signed a pact that is known as the Anglo-Irish Agreement. The pact allowedthe Republic of Ireland to have an advisory role, but no direct powers, in NorthernIreland’s government. Later, in 1993, Irish leader Albert Reynolds and British PrimeMinister John Major issued the Downing Street Declaration. It gave the people inNorthern Ireland the right to choose their own fate. It also offered Sinn Fien a seat at thepeace talk if violence by the IRA ended. In August of that year, the IRA issued a cease-fire. British Loyalists followed suit and agreed to lay down theirweapons.(WWW.CNN.COM) So in 1996, peace talks were well under way. Unfortunately, when U.S. SenatorGeorge Mitchell of Maine, and chairman of the peace talks, proposed a surrender ofguerilla weapons. the IRA refused and answered with a one ton bomb that killed twopeople in London. The talks resumed later on without the Sinn Fien and theIRA.(WWW.CNN.COM) The largest peace effort yet has happened in the past year. Britain announced thatit would proceed with an independent inquiry into the Bloody Sunday killings of 1972.Small violent eruptions between assorted military groups killed 18 people in protest. Acting against this violence, the British Prime Minister sets a deadline of April ninth,1998, for a peace agreement. An agreement was reached in the multi-party talks, whichincluded the Sinn Fien after the IRA restored its cease-fire in July of 1997. (WWW.CNN.COM) The agreement is a major step toward a more peaceful union between the twogovernments and three regions. The agreement first calls for the accelerated release ofany war criminals that belong to the groups that are maintaining the cease-fire. But themain point of the agreement involves the future of the Northern Ireland government. Theagreements calls for the people of Northern Island to decide whether or not to sty a partof Great Britain or to unite with the Republic of Ireland and form one Ireland. (WWW.CNN.COM) There are many parts of the agreement that have to do with the relationshipsbetween Ireland, Northern Ireland, and Britain. First, it establishes a North-South Councilof Ministers that would work together on issues like transportation and agriculturebetween the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. The Republic also agreed to add aconstitutional amendment dropping their territorial claim the six counties of NorthernIreland. The agreement also calls for the paramilitary groups that planned all the terroristattacks during the preceding three decades, to give up their weapons over two years,starting in June. Also in the agreement is a promise to drop all previous laws and customsthat generally discriminate against the Irish Catholics in Northern Ireland, and visa-versa inthe Republic of Ireland. (WWW.CNN.COM) The agreement was enacted after a resounding yes vote on both sides of the Irishborder, marking the first time in eighty years that people on both sides of the island votedtogether in a single vote. (WWW.CNN.COM) Throughout history Ireland has been marred by violence and hatred. They havebeen fighting an ancient war of religion and beliefs raging against each other for no reasonbut to keep control of what is now Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland has been abreeding ground of fighting, bombings, assassinations, and violence. History has provedto us that territory can be the cause of so much death. The fighting over Northern Irelandand hatred between the Irish Catholics and English Protestants in Northern Ireland hasresulted in a total of three thousand, two hundred and forty-nine people dying. (TimeMagazine Page 38) You can’t help but ask yourself why. It is hard to understand whysomeone would want to take another person’s life over some land and control. But ithappens everyday, and has been happening for over four hundred years in NorthernIreland. Hopefully through these recent peace talks and the recent peace agreement, allthe fighting can come to an end, and the people of Northern Ireland can decide their ownfate instead of two other countries fighting over them. Maybe through this they will beable to be the masters of their own destiny. Sometimes we must step back and letsomeone settle his own problems. If the majority of the people in Northern Ireland want aunited Ireland, then so be it. Leave it up to the people it effects, the people who have seenthe death and destruction, who have lost family and friends in the seemingly senselessfighting.

Papers - The Anglo-Irish Agreement

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The Anglo-Irish Agreement

The Anglo-Irish Agreement
The Anglo-Irish agreement, 1985, this was agreed between Prime
Minister Margaret Thatcher and Irish Taoiseach Garrett Fitzgerald.
Between 1980 and 1984, the British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher
held regular meetings with Taoiseach Charles Haughey and then Garrett
Fitzgerald. Both governments were concerned about continuing the
violence with the IRA and about the increasing support for the IRA’S
political wing, Sinn Fein. By 1984, Mrs Thatcher was convinced that
any solution would have to involve the Irish republicans. Unionists in
Northern Ireland became increasingly concerned during these
discussions, but Thatcher ignored their fears. In November 1985, she
signed the Anglo-Irish agreement with Garrett Fitzgerald. The
agreement was well received in most of mainland Britain and the
republic. In Northern Ireland, the alliance and SDLP felt that it had
possibilities. Sinn Fein rejected this because it confirmed the
partition of Ireland. The Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1922 establ.


. middle of paper.


. reland, primarily Sinn Féin (SF) and
Fianna Fáil (FF), and most vehemently, from the unionist politicians
and population of Northern Ireland. Breakaway terrorist groups such
as the Real IRA haven't agreed with the IRA's ceasefire.

They have carried on bombing in places like Omagh and London.

But on 28 July 2005 the IRA released a very important statement,
saying that they were giving up violence for good.

They also promised to destroy all their weapons and told all their
members to stop fighting as well.


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Terms of Service
updated 12 August 2009


Welcome to 123HelpMe.com (the "Web Site"), which is produced by the "Company". This page states the Terms of Service (the "Terms" or the "TOS") under which this Web Site is available for use. Please read this page carefully. By accessing and using this Web Site you accept and agree to be bound, without limitation or qualification, by these Terms and any other terms and conditions that may apply. The Company may, at its sole discretion, modify or revise these Terms at any time by updating this posting. You are bound by any such modification or revision and should therefore visit this page periodically to review the Terms. By using the Web Site after we have made any modification or revision, you agree to be bound by the revised terms. If you do not accept any of the Terms stated here, do not use the Web Site. The Company retains the right to deny access to anyone at its complete discretion for any reason, including but not limited to violation of these Terms. The Terms constitute the entire legal agreement between you and the Company.

1. Web Site Usage
In consideration of your use of the Web Site, you represent that you are 1) of legal age to form a binding contract and 2) are not a person prohibited from receiving services under the laws of the United States or other jurisdiction. You further agree to use the Web Site only for purposes that are permitted by 1) the Terms and 2) any applicable law, regulation or generally accepted practice or guideline in the relevant jurisdictions, which includes any laws regarding the export of data to and from the United States or other relevant countries.

As part of your use of the Web Site, you may be required to provide information about yourself, such as identification or contact details, as part of your continued use of the Services. You agree that any registration information you give to the Company will always be correct and current.

The contents of this Web Site, such as text, graphics, images, audio, video and all other material ("Material"), are protected by copyright under both United States and foreign laws, and are owned or controlled by third parties that have licensed their Material to the Company. Unauthorized use of the Material may violate copyright, trademark, and other laws. You must retain all copyright and other proprietary notices contained in the original Material on any copy you make of the Material. You may not sell or modify the Material or reproduce, display, publicly perform, distribute, or otherwise use the Material in any way for any commercial purpose. The use of the Material on any other Web Site, or in a networked computer environment for any purpose is prohibited, without the express written permission of the Company. The trademarks, logos, and service marks (the "Marks") displayed on the Web Site are owned by the Company. You are prohibited from use of those Marks without the express, written permission of the Company. If you would like information about obtaining permission from the company to use the Material on your Web site, please contact us via email. If you violate any of these Terms, your permission to use the Material will be automatically terminated and you must immediately destroy any copies you have made of the Material whether said copies are in your possession or in the possession of any third party.

You agree not to access or attempt to access any of the Material by any means other than through the interface that is provided by the Web Site, without specific written agreement with the Company. You specifically agree not to access or attempt to access any of the Material through any automated means, which includes the use of scripts or web crawlers.

Unless you have been given written consent of the Company by separate agreement, you agree that you will not reproduce, duplicate, copy, sell, trade or resell any Material obtained from the Web Site, or usage or access to the Web Site, for any commercial purpose.

You agree that you are solely responsible for any breach of your legal and contractual obligations under the Terms and solely responsible for the consequences of any such breach, including any loss or damage which the Company, its agents, or third parties may suffer. You further agree that the Company has no responsibility to you or to any third party for your breach.

2. User-Submitted Material
You agree not to submit any unlawful, abusive, defamatory, harassing, obscene, or otherwise objectionable Material of any kind, including but not limited to Material that would constitute a criminal offense, violate the rights of others, or violate the laws or regulations of the United States or other jurisdiction. You agree not to submit any Material that infringes on any intellectual property rights of another, including but not limited to copyright and trademark. You agree not to submit any Material that you have reason to believe is false, misleading, or fraudulent, or contains private information about an identifiable person without that person.s written permission. You remain solely responsible for, and agree to indemnify and hold harmless the Company, its agents, affiliates, representatives, licensors, and licensees, against any claim arising from any Material you submit as well as Material submitted by a third party using your computer or IP address.

Any Material you submit to the Web Site is and will be treated as non-confidential and non-proprietary. The Company has no obligation of any kind with respect to submitted Material. The Company reserves the right, but has no obligation, to remove, edit, or reject any Material it deems inappropriate. You agree that modification of the Material by the Company or its agents does not transfer ownership of said Material.

You warrant that the Material submitted is original, has not been previously licensed or submitted to another Web Site or entity, and that you own the proprietary rights to said Material, including copyright, trademark, and patent rights as applicable, or the express written authority of the owner(s) of said rights to use and license the Material. You retain all patent, trademark, and copyright to any Material submitted. You further warrant that you have all rights, power, and authority necessary to claim and grant the license conveyed herein to the submitted Material. By submitting Material to the Web Site, you agree to grant the Company, its agents, affiliates, representatives, licensors, and licensees, a worldwide, irrevocable, nonexclusive, perpetual, royalty-free right (including moral rights) and license to copy, modify, translate, publish, disclose, transfer, assign, sell, and distribute said Material in any form now known or hereafter developed, for any purpose without limitation, and without any obligation of notice, attribution, or compensation to you or another.

3. Company's Liability
The Material on the Web Site contains inaccuracies and typographical errors. The Company makes no representations or guarantees about the accuracy, reliability, completeness, or timeliness of the Material or about the results obtained from using the Web Site or the Material. You expressly agree that any use of the Web Site, the Material, and the results obtained from using the Web Site or Material is entirely at your own risk. We reserve the right to make periodic changes to the Web Site, and these changes may be made at any time without notice. Most of the Material on the Web Site is provided and maintained by third parties. This third party Material may not be screened by the Company prior to its inclusion on the Web Site. You expressly agree that the Company is not liable or responsible for any defamatory, offensive, or illegal conduct of other subscribers or third parties.

The Company does not warrant that the Web Site will operate error-free or that the Web Site or its server is free of computer viruses or other harmful goods. If your use of the Web Site or its Material results in a need to repair or replace equipment or data, you are solely responsible for those costs.

The Web Site and its Material are provided on an as-is and as-available basis without warranty express or implied. The Company, its agents, affiliates, representatives, licensors, licensees, suppliers, and any third parties mentioned at this site, to the fullest extent permitted by law, disclaim all warranties, including the warranty of non-infringement of proprietary or third party rights, and the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose. The Company and its suppliers make no warranties as to the accuracy, reliability, completeness, or timeliness of the material, services, text, graphics and links.

No information, whether oral or written, provided by the Company or through the Web Site shall create any warranty not expressly stated in the Terms.

4. Disclaimer
IN NO EVENT SHALL the Company, its agents, affiliates, representatives, licensors, licensees, SUPPLIERS, OR ANY THIRD PARTIES MENTIONED AT THIS SITE BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, INCIDENTAL AND CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, LOST PROFITS, OR DAMAGES RESULTING FROM LOST DATA OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) RESULTING FROM THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE WEB SITE AND/OR THE MATERIAL, WHETHER BASED ON WARRANTY, CONTRACT, TORT, OR ANY OTHER LEGAL THEORY, AND WHETHER OR NOT THE COMPANY IS ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

5. Links to Other Web Sites
The Web Site contains links to third party Web sites maintained by others. These links are provided solely as a convenience to you and not as an endorsement by the Company of the contents on such third-party Web sites. The Company is not responsible for the content of linked third-party sites and does not make any representations on the content or accuracy of materials on such third-party Web sites. The Company has no control over such sites, and you agree that the Company is not responsible for the availability of such external sites. The Company does not endorse and is not responsible or liable for any Material on or available from external sites. You agree that the Company is not responsible or liable, whether directly or indirectly, for any damage or loss caused or alleged to be caused by or in connection with use of any external site. If you decide to access linked third-party Web sites, you do so at your own risk.

6. Limitation of Liability
Your use of the Web Site is at your own risk. If you are dissatisfied with any of the Materials or other contents of the Web Site or with these Terms and Conditions, your sole and exclusive remedy is to discontinue use of the Web Site.

Under no circumstances shall the Company or its agents be liable to any user on account of that user's use of the Web Site. Such limitation of liability shall apply to prevent recovery of any and all damages, including, without limitation, direct, indirect, incidental, consequential, special, punitive and exemplary damages arising from any use of the Web Site, including any damages that may be incurred by third parties.

7. Indemnity
You agree to defend, indemnify, and hold harmless the Company, its officers, directors, owners, members, employees, agents, affiliates, representatives, licensors, and licensees, from and against any claims, actions, or demands, including without limitation reasonable legal and accounting fees, alleging or resulting from your use of the Material or your breach of the TOS, from any claim arising from any Material that you submit, or your violation of any rights of another, including but not limited to intellectual property rights.

8. User Information
The Company may use the information it obtains relating to you, including your IP address, name, e-mail address, mailing address, and use of the Web Site, if required to do so by law or in a good faith belief that such retention, preservation and/or disclosure is reasonably necessary: (a) to respond to any legal process or third party claims; (b) to enforce these TOS; (c) to protect the rights, property or personal safety of the Company, its agents, its users and the public; or (d) for business and/or marketing purposes.

Your personal information will be treated in compliance with our Privacy Policy. You agree to the use of your data in accordance with the Company.s Privacy Policy. 9. Content
You agree that by using the Web Site, you may be exposed to content that you may find offensive, indecent, or objectionable. You use the Web Site at your own risk. You further agree that the Company is not responsible for any Material you transmit or display while using the Web Site.

10. Minors
This Web Site contains material that may not be appropriate for minors. If there is concern by parents that children may visit this site, the Company recommends using a parental control software package. While no parental software package replaces careful supervision of Internet use by children, these tools can be a useful addition to your suite of Internet applications.

11. Notification of Claimed Copyright Infringement
If you find Material on the Web Site which you believe to be an infringement of copyright or other intellectual property rights of you or any third party, you are requested to immediately notify us as described below in accordance with the United States Digital Millennium Copyright Act. To report any alleged infringement, please email us with the following information:

1. your name, address, telephone number, and email address; and if you are representing the owner of the intellectual property, the name of the owner 2. a detailed description of the Material that you claim has been infringed; including the URL where said material is located on the Web Site, or a description of where you found such material on our Web Site; 3. if your claim is based on a registered work, the registration number and date of issuance of the registration; 4. a statement that you believe, in good faith, that the use of the Material on our Web Site has not been authorized by the true owner of the work, its agent, or as a matter of law; and 5. a signed statement, made under penalty of perjury, that all of the information you have provided is true, and that you are the owner of the intellectual property or are authorized to act on behalf of the owner

12. General
The Company makes no claims the Materials are appropriate for any particular purpose or audience, or that they may be downloaded outside of the United States. Access to the Materials may not be legal by certain persons or in certain countries. The Company is not responsible for any damages, claims or injuries that may result from unlawful or inappropriate access to the materials. If you access the Web Site from outside of the United States, you do so at your own risk and are responsible for compliance with the laws of any appropriate jurisdiction.

All legal issues arising from or related to the use of the Web Site shall be construed in accordance with and determined by the laws of the state of the Company applicable to contracts entered into and performed within the state of the Company. By using this Web Site, you agree that the exclusive forum for any claims or causes of action arising out of your use of this Web Site is the court governing the county in which the Company is registered. You hereby irrevocably waive any objection that you may have to the venue of any such proceeding brought in such a court and any claim that any such proceeding brought in such a court has been brought in an inconvenient forum.

If any provision of the TOS is found to be invalid by any court having competent jurisdiction, or invalid under the laws of the governing jurisdiction, the invalidity of such provision shall not affect the validity of the remaining provisions of the TOS, which shall remain in full force and effect. No waiver of any term of the TOS shall be deemed a further or continuing waiver of such term or any other term. Failure to enforce any provision of the TOS does not constitute a waiver for future enforcement of said TOS.

You agree that irrespective of any statute or law to the contrary, any claim or cause of action stemming from or connected to use of the Web Site or the TOS shall be filed within one year after such claim or cause of action arose, or be forever barred.Your browser may not support display of this image.

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