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Materialism Sat Essay Examples

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Example Essays: Materialism

1. Materialism

Materialism Materialism what do you think it is?We all know that materialism is what a person wants not what he needs.Materialism also is the standards that other people see that we think we haveto live by. As Webster"s Dictionary state, materialism is a theory thatphysical matter is only fundamental reality. Materialism in our society can also be costly. Materialism can be verycostly.

2. Materialism

Through materialism everything that happens is explained in terms of the law of nature.Basically materialism is the idea that everything that exists is material, or physical. Materialism has been atheistic. Materialism is not an empirical philosophy. The three most common forms are non-reductive materialism, reductive materialism, and eliminative materialism. The most advanced form of materialism is non-reductive materialism.

3. Materialism and the Downfall of the American Dream

Materialism and the Downfall of the American Dream It has been said that "Money is the world"s curse. Is it because money leads to materialism. Money leads to materialism and materialism leads to the decline and downfall of the American Dream. Unbridled materialism has the ability to corrupt the people whom it affects. So, he is materialistic but not for materialism"s sake; he is materialistic for love.

4. Materialism

That is because of the materialism. This shows that, the materialism is not the best thing that we need for our life. At first we thought materialism will make our life easier, but if we think over and over again, that stuff doesn"t make our whole life happy and peaceful. In my opinion, love and respect is the most important thing in life, not materialism.

5. Humanism Vs Materialism

MaterialismIn Bernard Malamud"s story "The First Seven YearsaE, there is a reoccurring theme of materialism vs. humanism. Feld the shoemaker and Max represent materialism, while the daughter Miriam and the assistant Sobel represent humanism.In the beginning of the story we learn that Feld is trying to match his daughter up with a young gentleman named Max. In Malamud"s short story, we see a clear distinction between humanism vs. materialism.

6. Dialectic Materialism

On Marx"s Theory of Dialectic Materialism:Dialectical Materialism is the theory of governmental evolution concocted by Karl Marx. This matches the closest with Marx"s idea of Dialectical Materialism; "Matter being the sole subject of change, and all change being a constant reflection of the struggle between opposites, arising from internal contradictions inherent to all things.aE The materialist aspect had little to do with his belief on Dialectics; it was merely incorporated to differentiate his theory from those dealing with the spiritual or illusionary realms, (which is normal.

7. Materialism

One recurring theme of materialism is supported by these four elements of fiction, point of view, setting, plot and character. This would take away from the theme of materialism. The many characters in The Rocking Horse Winner exhibit the theme of materialism. The character that shows the largest need for materialism is Paul"s mother. The mother was the driving force for the materialism in this story.

8. The Balinese Cockfight

Of the theories set forth by Kendell Blanchard, Cultural Materialism is perhaps, the most relevant theory and offers the best explanation of the Balinese Cockfight. Cultural Materialism is comprised of three phenomena; Technoeconimic, sociopolitical, and ideological components. According to Cultural Materialism, sport is to be understood with reference to the technology and economy of the system in which it occurs. The third component of Cultural Materialism that is relative to the Balinese Cockfight is the ideological phenomena. The Balinese Cockfight and the Cultural Mate.

9. Materialism

For example, the new television show that starts this Tuesday is called "The Simple Life.aE It is about these two rich and famous girls that only know materialism. Materialism is never going to change. Thoreau stated that Americans were materialistic when he wrote "Why I Went to the Woods,aE in the 1800"s, and in my opinion, materialism has only gotten worse.

10. Monism and Pluralism

Monism and pluralism both are examples of materialism. Materialism is a kind of metaphysical theory that asserts that reality, the universe, is made of some kind of material stuff. Monism is a term that describes any philosophy that denies that they are many separate beings in the universe. It is al.

11. Anti-Dühring by Frederick Engels

However, in order to completely understand the contemporary social structures, it is important to consider how materialism was historically understood and practiced. By explaining historical materialism and contradictions in capitalism, this paper will further discuss the conflicts that arise from capitalist mode of production. Materialism largely established the foundation of social structure. According to Engels, the concept of historical materialism explains that the tools of production and labour belonged to the producer. Since materialism and production go hand in hand and.

12. The Scarlet Letter- Puritanism

He illustrates this by describing "the city upon a hillaE, materialism, and the hypocritical nature of the Puritan society. It is also evident that although the citizens are forbidden from materialism, their hierarchy indulges in it. The "city upon a hill,aE materialism, and hypocrisy are all ideal examples of the negative qualities of Puritan society in the seventeenth century that Nathaniel Hawthorne depicts.

13. Materialism

"There must be more to life than having everything.aE aE" Maurice Sendak. In the short story "On Dumpster DivingaE by Lars Eighner, the author explains the time he spent homeless and scavenging through dumpsters. The time he spent going through other people"s trash taught him a valuable lesson o.

14. Marx for Beginners

Marx for BeginnersAccording to Marx, historical materialism is the economic system of any people that determines its social structure, the latter, determining its political and religious structures. So, historical materialism claims to be a way of explaining history. It deals with the causes of social evolution, stressing that history is governed by necessary laws that are as immutable as laws of nature.Historical materialism is considered a scientific method by which to comprehend the events of the past and to grasp their true nature. They are to be sought not in the philosophy, but i.

15. Great Gatby

Materialism and Idealism in The Great Gatsby The Great Gatsby by F. The materialism in the novel is of more importance to the characters than idealism. Gatsby feels that the only way to achieve idealism is through materialism, he said, "She only married you because I was poor and she was tired of waiting for me."1 He believes that Daisy would be his if he had money. Another way that Gatsby uses materialism to achieve idealism id through his appearance. This book is a perfect example of what is needed to achieve the American dream, materialism and idealism.

16. Fight Club

Fight Club is a dynamic reflection of the everyday experience of the middle-class working man, whose life revolves around materialism and consumerism. He wants to create a civilization where there is no money, where materialism does not exist. This film shows that as materialism and consumerism seize our culture, we become lonely and forget how to relate to other human beings.

17. Themes in the Great Gatsby

However, materialism is essential in a relationships presented in the novel, "The Great Gatsby". Fitzgerald displays that relationships based on materialism will fail. Myrtle's relationship with Tom is based on wealth and materialism.

18. The Great Gatsby

The Great GatsbyFrom Freedom and Equality to Materialism and Merit:The Demoralization of the American DreamThe American Dream during the time of our forefathers was for one to be free, equal, and entirely self-made. During the "roaring twenties,aE however, an economic boom triggered a frenzy of capitalism that adulterated this dream into being wholly based on materialism and social merit. As always with the contemporary American Dream, social merit and materialism blind the aspirator of basic moral behavior. It will not stop until materialism is tamed.

19. Materialism

What Advertisements Don"t Tell You in Their Adsma*te*ri*al*ism (m -tir - -l z m)n. 1.The theory or attitude that physical well-being and worldly possessions constitute the greatest good and highest value in life. Advertising generates new needs and establishes brand loyalties. Ads alert people to.

20. Themes in Death of a Salesman

Death of a Salesman, the 1949 play by Arthur Miller, develops the ideas of conformity, popularity and materialism through repeating and contrasting elements. The American Dream relates heavily to the morals Willy has learned to live by; conformity, popularity and materialism. Death of a Salesman conveys Millers intricate ideas of conformity, popularity and materialism.

21. The Necklace (Guy de Maupassant)

The Necklace (Guy de Maupassant)The title of this short story "The NecklaceaE represents the materialism that misguides Mathilde the main character and it is the focal point of the story.Mathilde is unhappy with her rank in society and also with her husband "a little clerk at the Ministry of Public InstructionaE.

22. ARE PART-TIME JOBS A GOOD IDEA?

It"s a general observation that in the past few decades, materialism has considerably dominated the spiritual values. No doubt that in the ancient times too, we would say, "money makes the mare goaE but nowadays, money even makes the "mayoraE go. So naturally, every one wants money. But the prob.

23. Jesus

Contrast from "Lives of JesusaE"In Lives of Jesus: Hidden JesusaE, Jesus is displayed as both an ascetic and a spiritual master. His hidden wisdom attracted, and continued to attract individuals who were seeking an alternative to materialism. Mark Tully brings to light lost traditions about Jesu.

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Sat essay prompt materialism

Author: SockeR On: 05.12.2016

Sat Essay Prompt Materialism

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Sat essay prompt materialism

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Materialism - Free Essays

Materialism

This essay Materialism is available for you on Essays24.com! Search Term Papers, College Essay Examples and Free Essays on Essays24.com - full papers database.

Autor: anton • December 19, 2010 • 1,585 Words (7 Pages) • 928 Views

I can get no satisfaction…

There is something perverse about more than enough. When we have more, it is never enough. It is always somewhere out there, just out of reach. The more we acquire, the more elusive enough becomes.

Materialism is today’s religion. We always value ourselves by what we wear, what we drive or how much we can spend. Brands are taking over the world very fast and today a 3 year old child is more likely to recognize and remember McDonalds than to know his last name. (Lynas, 2007)

As the quantity and variety of brands and products grow, so does our need to have it all, apparently we can get no satisfaction. But what is materialism and why is it spreading so quickly around the world?

The two most important definitions of materialism include those of Belk (1984,1985) and Richins and Dawson (1992). Belk describes materialism as “believing the acquisition and possession of thing is the ultimate source of happiness”. Richins and Dawson define materialism as a "set of centrally held beliefs about the importance of possessions in one's life."

The people who follow this trend are the perfect consumers, willing to buy anything the industry convinces will make them feel better. They are easy prey for advertisement and follow it without further thinking. When buying they are low involved and not pay attention to the product characteristics.

But why do people focus so much on their possessions and turn into materialists?

Researchers have found that family communication is a decisive factor when determining if a person will become materialistic or not. Families where parents do not fulfill the children’s needs, adolescents who do not have good communication with their parents and who make social comparisons with their friends are found to be more materialistic than families where there is good communication and parenting style. (Kara Chan and Gerard Prendergast, 2007)

Children are now aware of their clothes and their possessions and are starting to associate happiness with money and with material things at a very young age. Marketers now calls them “tweens”, children between 9 and 15 years olds, and spend millions of dollars trying to get their attentions and their money.

(Goldberg, Peracchio and Bamossy, 2003) In a study conducted by James A. Roberts, Chris Manolis, and John F. Tanner in 2003 children of divorced parents where found to be more materialistic, to fall into compulsive buying and to associate success with material possessions.

Social pressure and unrealistic ideals also contribute to materialism. People tend to compare themselves with highly idealized media images and advertisement, these people create unrealistically high expectations which are not able to fulfill, leaving the subject with a feeling of sadness and discontent.

According to Chan and Prendergast (2007), people who compare their own possessions with the possessions of friends and media celebrities come to believe that possessions are related to success and happiness, and that possessions occupy a central position in life.

Other researchers have also found that materialism “is a coping mechanism for consumers to deal with feelings of uncertainty about the self or about uncertainty regarding norms in the society” (Chang and Arkin 2002). Materialism can be seen as a way to deal with problems, such as divorced parents, social pressure, depression or low self esteem. Like any addiction, shopping becomes a way of feeling temporarily good. Once the good is acquired, pleasure is derived from the communicative aspect of the good, which is telling others about their new acquisition and how great it is.

Envy, non generosity, greed, possessiveness, feelings of inferiority and low self esteem have been found to have a positive relation with materialism, and are often found in these persons. (Richins and Dawson 1992 ; Belk 1987)

They also lack of collective oriented values such as religion, family or moral values. Consequently, materialistics tend more to go on shopping sprees, to make quick and low involvement decisions when buying and to give great importance to income and wealth.

All this activities are commonly oriented towards the prestige and social status that they think material things will give them. Materialists see possessions as image and status enhancers. Studies suggest that for materialists, possessions signal accomplishment and have important social meanings. When making the decision to buy a product, they are also deciding to acquire the social meaning of that product. “They are constantly working to project certain image, and by purchasing things they communicate their power and status to others”. (Fitzmaurice and Comegys, 2006) Materialists acquire goods in order to add further visible evidence that they are indeed successful or part of an elite rank in society.

The sad part is that what started as a journey to find happiness and reach certain level of satisfaction ends with a feeling of emptiness and general discontent. According to Richins (1987), Materialists not only have greater expectations with their purchases and acquisitions but also tend to experience high and recurrent levels of negative emotions after the purchase, these later cause a dissatisfaction with life in general and a diminished feeling of well being. Because the acquisition

500 - INTERNAL SERVER ERROR

500 errors usually mean that the server has encountered an unexpected condition that prevented it from fulfilling the request made by the client. This is a general error class returned by a web server when it encounters a problem in which the server itself can not be more specific about the error condition in its response to the client.

In many cases this is not an indication of an actual problem with the server itself but rather a problem with the information the server has been instructed to access or return as a result of the request. This error is often caused by an issue on your site which may require additional review by your web host.

Please contact your web host for further assistance.

There are a few common causes for this error code including problems with the individual script that may be executed upon request. Some of these are easier to spot and correct than others.

File and Directory Ownership

The server you are on runs applications in a very specific way in most cases. The server generally expects files and directories be owned by your specific user cPanel user. If you have made changes to the file ownership on your own through SSH please reset the Owner and Group appropriately.

File and Directory Permissions

The server you are on runs applications in a very specific way in most cases. The server generally expects files such as HTML, Images, and other media to have a permission mode of 644. The server also expects the permission mode on directories to be set to 755 in most cases.

(See the Section on Understanding Filesystem Permissions.)

Command Syntax Errors in .htaccess file

In the .htaccess file, you may have added lines that are conflicting with each other or that are not allowed.

If you would like to check a specific rule in your .htaccess file you can comment that specific line in the .htaccess by adding # to the beginning of the line. You should always make a backup of this file before you start making changes.

For example, if the .htaccess looks like

DirectoryIndex default.html
AddType application/x-httpd-php5 php

Then try something like this

DirectoryIndex default.html
#AddType application/x-httpd-php5 php

Note: Due to the way in which the server environments are setup you may not use php_value arguments in a .htaccess file.

Exceeded Process Limits

It is possible that this error is caused by having too many processes in the server queue for your individual account. Every account on our server may only have 25 simultaneous processes active at any point in time whether they are related to your site or other processes owned by your user such as mail.

Or type this to view a specific user's account (be sure to replace username with the actual username):

ps faux |grep username

Once you have the process ID ("pid"), type this to kill the specific process (be sure to replace pid with the actual process ID):

Your web host will be able to advise you on how to avoid this error if it is caused by process limitations. Please contact your web host. Be sure to include the steps needed to see the 500 error on your site.

Symbolic Representation

The first character indicates the file type and is not related to permissions. The remaining nine characters are in three sets, each representing a class of permissions as three characters. The first set represents the user class. The second set represents the group class. The third set represents the others class.

Each of the three characters represent the read, write, and execute permissions:

The following are some examples of symbolic notation:

  • - rwx r-x r-x a regular file whose user class has full permissions and whose group and others classes have only the read and execute permissions.
  • c rw- rw- r-- a character special file whose user and group classes have the read and write permissions and whose others class has only the read permission.
  • d r-x --- --- a directory whose user class has read and execute permissions and whose group and others classes have no permissions.
Numeric Representation

Another method for representing permissions is an octal (base-8) notation as shown. This notation consists of at least three digits. Each of the three rightmost digits represents a different component of the permissions: user. group. and others .

Each of these digits is the sum of its component bits As a result, specific bits add to the sum as it is represented by a numeral:

  • The read bit adds 4 to its total (in binary 100),
  • The write bit adds 2 to its total (in binary 010), and
  • The execute bit adds 1 to its total (in binary 001).

These values never produce ambiguous combinations. each sum represents a specific set of permissions. More technically, this is an octal representation of a bit field – each bit references a separate permission, and grouping 3 bits at a time in octal corresponds to grouping these permissions by user. group. and others .

Permission mode 0 7 5 5

Permission mode 0 6 4 4

The .htaccess file contains directives (instructions) that tell the server how to behave in certain scenarios and directly affect how your website functions.

Redirects and rewriting URLs are two very common directives found in a .htaccess file, and many scripts such as WordPress, Drupal, Joomla and Magento add directives to the .htaccess so those scripts can function.

It is possible that you may need to edit the .htaccess file at some point, for various reasons.This section covers how to edit the file in cPanel, but not what may need to be changed.(You may need to consult other articles and resources for that information.)

There are Many Ways to Edit a .htaccess File
  • Edit the file on your computer and upload it to the server via FTP
  • Use an FTP program's Edit Mode
  • Use SSH and a text editor
  • Use the File Manager in cPanel

The easiest way to edit a .htaccess file for most people is through the File Manager in cPanel.

How to Edit .htaccess files in cPanel's File Manager

Before you do anything, it is suggested that you backup your website so that you can revert back to a previous version if something goes wrong.

Open the File Manager
  1. Log into cPanel.
  2. In the Files section, click on the File Manager icon.
  3. Check the box for Document Root for and select the domain name you wish to access from the drop-down menu.
  4. Make sure Show Hidden Files (dotfiles) " is checked.
  5. Click Go. The File Manager will open in a new tab or window.
  6. Look for the .htaccess file in the list of files. You may need to scroll to find it.
To Edit the .htaccess File
  1. Right click on the .htaccess file and click Code Edit from the menu. Alternatively, you can click on the icon for the .htaccess file and then click on the Code Editor icon at the top of the page.
  2. A dialogue box may appear asking you about encoding. Just click Edit to continue. The editor will open in a new window.
  3. Edit the file as needed.
  4. Click Save Changes in the upper right hand corner when done. The changes will be saved.
  5. Test your website to make sure your changes were successfully saved. If not, correct the error or revert back to the previous version until your site works again.
  6. Once complete, you can click Close to close the File Manager window.

The permissions on a file or directory tell the server how in what ways it should be able to interact with a file or directory.

This section covers how to edit the file permissions in cPanel, but not what may need to be changed.(See the section on what you can do for more information.)

There are Many Ways to Edit a File Permissions
  • Use an FTP program
  • Use SSH and a text editor
  • Use the File Manager in cPanel

The easiest way to edit file permissions for most people is through the File Manager in cPanel.

How to Edit file permissions in cPanel's File Manager

Before you do anything, it is suggested that you backup your website so that you can revert back to a previous version if something goes wrong.

Open the File Manager
  1. Log into cPanel.
  2. In the Files section, click on the File Manager icon.
  3. Check the box for Document Root for and select the domain name you wish to access from the drop-down menu.
  4. Make sure Show Hidden Files (dotfiles) " is checked.
  5. Click Go. The File Manager will open in a new tab or window.
  6. Look for the file or directory in the list of files. You may need to scroll to find it.
To Edit the Permissions
  1. Right click on the file or directory and click Change Permissions from the menu.
  2. A dialogue box should appear allowing you to select the correct permissions or use the numerical value to set the correct permissions.
  3. Edit the file permissions as needed.
  4. Click Change Permissions in the lower left hand corner when done. The changes will be saved.
  5. Test your website to make sure your changes were successfully saved. If not, correct the error or revert back to the previous version until your site works again.
  6. Once complete, you can click Close to close the File Manager window.

A Challenge to Materialism

A Challenge to Materialism

Cartesian Dualism Challenged

In this paper, I will examine the issues of individuation and identity in Descartes' philosophy of mind-body dualism. I will begin by addressing the framework of Cartesian dualism. Then I will examine the problems of individuation and identity as they relate to Descartes. Hopefully, after explaining Descartes' reasoning and subsequently offering my response, I can show with some degree of confidence that the issues of individuation and identity offer a challenge to the Cartesians' premise of mind-body dualism.

Before diving into a critical examination of these two issues, it would be wise to first discuss the basis of Descartes' philosophy. Descartes begins his discussion of mind by first disregarding everything that he can call into doubt. After this mental cleansing, Descartes is left only with the maxim that Ð''I cannot doubt that I am doubting.' From this conclusion, Descartes states that some entity must be doing this doubting, and claims that this entity is his mind. The Cartesian mind has only one property: thinking. Consequently, Descartes establishes a distinction between mind and body. The two share no characteristics, as the body does not indulge in thinking, the mind's solitary function. Further, mind and body are independent of each other; mind can exist even in the absence of body. At the same time, Descartes does not doubt that "the mind begins to think as soon as it is implanted in the body of an infant." Yet the mind does not need the body to engage in introspection, the action of thinking about thinking. Only introspection is immune from illusion, confusion, or doubt. Information about the world outside of mind is prone to these hazards. We cannot conclude with certainty that other minds exist. Thus, the Cartesian is left to what I would dub a lonely existence: "Even if [a Cartesian] prefers to believe that to other human bodies there are harnessed minds not unlike his own, he cannot claim to be able to discover their individual characteristics. Absolute solitude is on this showing the ineluctable destiny of the soul. Only our bodies can meet."

Now I will critically examine Descartes' mind-body philosophy by addressing the issues of individuation and identity. First, I need to be clear about the issues I am addressing. In order to fully understand the problem of individuation, we need to focus on what the word individuation itself means. We can derive individuation from the Latin verb dÐ"®vÐ"®do, meaning "I divide up" or "I separate into parts," and also the prefix in-, which in this case means "into." So, when we talk about individuation, we are talking about a state wherein an object can be separated or isolated from other objects: I can individuate Brown University sweatshirts from Rhode Island College sweatshirts based upon my observation of the insignia on them. Specifically, I am concerned with how I can distinguish minds from each other.

Strawson articulates the need for this distinction in his discussion of what he labels "the central difficulty in Cartesianism." Strawson argues that if we want to talk about individual itemsÐ'--minds, bodies, computers, baseball cards, bananas, or practically anythingÐ'--we must first understand the difference between one of that item and two of that item. In other words, to talk about an individual, you have to be able to count the individual. However, Cartesian philosophy does not allow for counting minds. The only mind you can know about is your own. Through introspection, I may be able to conclude that I am a thinking thing myself, much like Descartes did, but I cannot tell if the girl sitting at the computer next to me has one mind, three minds, seventeen minds, or even no mind at all. Thus the Cartesian cannot individuate minds. Strawson finds this fact problematic for the Cartesians, as the Cartesian "wants his doctrine to have the consequence that a perfectly ordinary manÐ'. has just one soul or consciousness which lasts him throughout." Anti-Cartesians like Strawson have no such difficulty as they hold to the principle

Free essays on materialism

Free essays on materialism

Materialism This essay Materialism is available for you on Essays24.com! Search Term Papers, College Essay Examples and Free Essays on Essays24.com - full papers. materialistic essay Example essay on Materialism: Materialism involves the importance one attaches to their worldly possessions. For a materialist, possessions are. Free Essays on Materialism And Consumerism for students. Use our papers to help you with yours Example essay on Materialism: Materialism involves the importance one attaches to their worldly possessions. For a materialist, possessions are central to his Materialism essays In today’s society, materialism takes part in every person’s life, no matter what social class they are. The idea of being materialistic can be. We know how difficult it is to write an essay. Get this FREE whitepaper on How to Write an Essay right away and sign up for our special offers. Free materialism papers, essays, and research papers. These results are sorted by most relevant first (ranked search). You may also sort these by color rating or. Essay on materialism - The Leading Essay And Research Paper Writing and Editing Help. free read online ebook library. 5. Free materialism papers, essays, and research papers. These results are sorted by most relevant first (ranked search). You may also sort these by color rating or. Free Essays on Materialistic Society. Get help with your writing. 1 through 30.

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Materialism - College Essays - 259 Words

Materialism

In the article “Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Cheap Stuff” written by Gary Hamel he puts forward a plan to make a change in America. The plan will either make a drastic change or won’t make a change at all. In my opinion I completely agree with Gary Hamel, we define our lives by how much stuff we have, to a large degree our personal and business relationships are defined by how much money we make. There seems to be no limit to the ridiculous expenditure, especially when people are actually willing to spend money. Today’s new materialism determines your placement on the social ladder. In almost every American organization, money and things are the whole foundation, so it makes sense that Americans would be so materialistic. Americans thrive on materialism. No matter how many items we own, we always want more. Shiny cars, high-tech televisions, fancy clothes we can’t get enough of the products our world offers. We have turned our society into a giant competition between those who have and those who don’t. Work hard and you will get where you want isn’t always the greatest words of advice, because in today’s society not having name brand shoes, clothes, designer bags and latest technology will rank you in the bottom. Spending is not the problem on its own; rather it’s obsessive accumulation of unnecessary products. I remember being in school if you didn’t have the latest shoes, or phone you wouldn’t be part of the “cool crowd” it hasn’t affected kids but adults too.

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While it is certainly the art movement most famous for it’s materialism it is not infact the first time that philosophy and ideas that centred around materialistic views were apparent. Without meaning and philosophy there is no art, if someone creates with no meaning behind their work, they are little more than craftsmen. The use of philosophy is what separates artists and creates meaning behind their art works. The history of materialism is a long and varied.

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Eliminative Materialism is a theory that deems that the common sense understanding of the mind is wrong. It also poses that one day neurosciences will reveal that mental states do not refer to anything real. In fact, the concept of mental states will eventually be eliminated by neuroscience. In the past, mental states were explained by what is called folk psychology. Churchland argues that folk psychology will gradually be replaced as neuroscience grows more advanced and.

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A brief inspection into Australian Materialism . The views of the Australian materialists on the identification of the mind and the body, simply stated, are that states and processes of the mind are identical to states and processes of the brain. Henceforth these philosophers (for the purpose of this article I will be referring in particular to Smart and Armstrong’s views on the matter) assume the position that all processes of the mind and experiences are due to physical.

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Resource: Writing Wizard at the Center for Writing Excellence; Chapter Six of Philosophy: The Power of Ideas Four theoretical approaches to metaphysics—Dualism, Materialism . Idealism, and Alternative Views (i.e. double aspect theory)—are competing for the right to claim that they are the correct metaphysical view. Select one of these theories and construct the strongest possible argument on its behalf in an essay of 700-1400 words. In your paper, acknowledge and.

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Materialism - Dictionary of Philosophy of Mind

The view that everything that actually exists is material, or physical. Many philosophers and scientists now use the terms `material' and `physical' interchangeably (for a version of physicalism distinct from materialism, see physicalism). Characterized in this way, as a doctrine about what exists, materialism is an ontological, or a metaphysical, view; it is not just an epistemological view about how we know or just a semantic view about the meaning of terms.

Materialism is a general view about what actually exists. Put bluntly, the view is just this: Everything that actually exists is material, or physical. Many philosophers and scientists now use the terms `material' and `physical' interchangeably (for a version of physicalism distinct from materialism, see physicalism). Characterized in this way, as a doctrine about what exists, materialism is an ontological. or a metaphysical. view; it is not just an epistemological view about how we know or just a semantic view about the meaning of terms.


Materialism versus Dualism

There are two prominent construals of `material'. First, according to many philosophers, something is material if and only if it is spatial, extended in space. One might thus propose that what it means to say that something is material is that it is extended in space. This construal of `material' is inspired by Descartes's influential characterization of material bodies, in Meditation II. Given this construal, materialism is just the view that everything that exists is extended in space, that nothing nonspatial exists. This portrayal of materialism is attractively simple, but may be unilluminating.

The problem is that the relevant notion of spatial extension may depend on the very notion of material in need of elucidation. If there is such dependence, conceptual circularity hampers the proposed characterization of materialism. The main worry here is that the notion of spatial extension is actually the notion of something's being extended in physical space, or the notion of something's being physically extended. It seems conceivable that something (perhaps a purely spiritual being) has temporal extension, in virtue of extending over time, even though that thing lacks extension in physical space. It does not seem self-contradictory, in other words, to hold that something is temporal (or, temporally extended) but is not a body. If this is so, the proposed characterization of materialism should be qualified to talk of physical space or physical extension. In that case, however, the threat of conceptual circularity is transparent. Even if there is no strict circularity here, the pertinent notion of spatial extension may be too closely related to the notion of material to offer genuine clarification. At a minimum, we need a precise explanation of spatial extension, if talk of such extension aims to elucidate talk of what is material. Perhaps a notion of spatial extension is crucial to an elucidation of materialism, but further explanation, without conceptual circularity, will then be needed. (Cf. Chomsky 1988.)

If there is indeed a coherently conceivable distinction between minds and material bodies, we must reject the view that materialism, understood as entailing mind-body identity, is conceptually, or analytically, true—that is, true just in virtue of the meanings of `mind' and `body'. Given such a coherently conceivable distinction, we can also challenge any version of materialism implying that psychological concepts (for example, the concepts of belief and sensory pain) are defined in terms of the ordinary physical causes of belief states and pain states. (Such materialism has been proposed by D. M. Armstrong 1977, and David Lewis 1966.) If `pain' is defined in terms of the ordinary bodily causes of pain, then it will not be coherently conceivable that there is pain without bodies. The concept of pain will then depend for its semantic significance on the concept of a bodily cause.

Materialists do not share a uniform view about the nature of psychological properties, such as the properties of being a belief, being a desire, and being a sensory experience. In particular, they do not all hold that every psychological property is equivalent or identical to a conjunction of physical properties. Only proponents of reductive materialism hold the latter view, and they are a small minority among contemporary materialists. Proponents of nonreductive materialism reject the latter view, and affirm that psychological properties can be exemplified even in an immaterial world. Such nonreductive materialists include functionalists about the mind, who hold that psychological properties differ from material properties in virtue of the special causal or functional roles of the former. Functionalists differ from behaviorists in acknowledging the psychological relevance of causal relations among not only stimuli and behavior but internal states as well. A third prominent version of materialism, eliminative materialism, recommends that we eliminate most, if not all, everyday psychological discourse, on the ground that it rests on seriously misguided assumptions about human psychology—assumptions that will disappear with the advance of science.

According to many functionalists, the causal roles that determine psychological properties are specified by the taxonomies, or systems of classification, found in the best contemporary psychology. These causal roles can depend on relational considerations that are independent of considerations about the composition of what exemplifies psychological properties. Functionalism allows that psychological properties can be "multiply realizable," realizable in compositionally different systems. Both carbon-based and silicon-based physical systems (and even nonphysical systems), for example, might support such a psychological process as thinking. Thinking, according to functionalism, does not require a specific physical composition for thinkers. Physical composition can vary as long as the appropriate causal-relational features obtain.

Nonreductive materialists generally follow functionalists in emphasizing the importance of multiple realizability. Before we can appreciate the evidence for multiple realizability, we need an appropriate vocabulary. A type of state, property, process, object, or event (hereafter, simply "object"), is a class or kind of object that admits of instances. An egg, for example, is a type of single-celled organism. There are many concrete instances of eggs: for instance, in humans, in hatcheries, and in many refrigerators. These individual eggs are tokens. We understand an object as a type or a token relative to a taxonomy, a means of classification—although it does not follow that the existence of all tokens depends on language. A particular mastiff may be a token of the type mastiff. but it is also a token of the type dog. mammal. animal. domesticated animal. and slobbering thing. Types may be scientifically taxonomic, but are not so automatically; whether they are such depends on their role in a scientific theory. With these concepts in hand, let us turn to the issue of type-type, or "smooth," reduction.

The smooth reduction of one theoretical description to another preserves causal/explanatory role. This preservation of causal/explanatory role is reflected in at least one of two ways: (a) the laws in the reduced and reducing theories are similar (this concerns whether they isolate the same covariations in the world) and (b) theoretical-predicate pairs across the reduced and reducing theories isolate, or pick out, the same objects. (Cf. Churchland 1989, chaps. 1, 3, and Hooker 1981.) Traditional accounts of reduction imply that theories, laws, and terms can be objects of reduction. One law, for instance, is reducible to another if the law targeted for reduction is logically derivable from the corresponding law in the reducing domain. Reduction, construed ontologically, is a relation between two theoretically characterized domains of entities, whether postulated objects, properties, processes, states, events, or laws. (A postulated entity need not, of course, be an actual entity.)

The type-type identity theory has the disadvantage that, as a formulation of materialism, there is inadequate evidence for it. For example, there is no evidence that it is generally the case that, for every type of psychological process (relative to the best psychological taxonomy), there is a corresponding type of neural process (relative to the best neuroscientific theory). Many materialists hold that there is evidence instead for a weaker, token-token identity theory, according to which any individual or token—a particular dog, a particular NaCl molecule, a particular cultural ritual—is entirely composed of physical phenomena. We might assure ourselves of this fact by a strategy of decomposition: Analyze all the constituents of the token, and determine whether any nonphysical phenomena are present. There is, of course, an epistemological question about how we might detect (and thus interact with) nonphysical phenomena. Awaiting evidence for nonphysical phenomena, materialists can perhaps be excused for withholding assent to such phenomena.

Endorsing the aforementioned multiple realizability functionalists may acknowledge token-token identity, but they challenge type-type reduction. Relative to dualism, acknowledgment of mind-body token identity may itself seem reductive because it rejects dependence of minds on nonphysical substances. Nonetheless, acknowledgment of just token identity is, as materialist doctrines go, a nonreductive formulation of materialism. Another nonreductive version of materialism, compositional materialism, casts even token-identity theories as too demanding.

Compositional materialism implies that physical (and thus, for the physicalist, psychological) events are not typically identical to their smaller constituent features. There is, according to compositional materialism, plasticity (or, multiple realizability) even within a single physical token, just as there is within a type susceptible to instantiation by different physical tokens. An example from some influential work on compositional materialism states that an individual car remains the same car even if its generator is replaced, at least on our ordinary criteria of car identity (Boyd 1980, p. 100). A difference in molecular constituents of the car in two possible worlds does not preclude, on this view, sameness of car. (For an analysis of this and other accounts, see Moser and Trout 1995a).


Materialism, Naturalism, and Explanation

The fates of naturalism and materialism are intimately related. Naturalism is the doctrine that the methods of philosophy are continuous with those of the natural sciences. The following two general views of the relation between naturalism and materialism are noteworthy: (a) Naturalism is ontologically neutral regarding materialism, and thus is logically compatible with ontological dualism; (b) Naturalism presupposes materialism, and thus is incompatible with dualism. If (a) is correct, the defense of materialism on the basis of naturalism must appeal to additional supporting evidence, presumably empirical evidence. If option (b) is correct, an appeal to naturalism in defense of materialism would be question begging, because materialism would then be part of the doctrine of naturalism. We suspect that most contemporary naturalists would prefer (a) to (b).


Materialism and Mind

Materialists have always had the difficult task of explaining how their materialism can account for such psychological phenomena as thoughts, beliefs, desires, intentions, and sensory experiences—or at least for familiar talk of such phenomena. A materialist's options, put roughly, are these: (a) explain how ordinary talk of psychological phenomena ("folk psychology," for short) can, at least for the most part, be reduced to language that does not commit one to any kind of ontological dualism; (b) explain how folk psychology is misguided to such an extent that it will disappear altogether with the advance of science; (c) explain how folk psychology is perfectly compatible with materialism even if the kind of reduction sought by (a) is unavailable—in particular, explain either (i) how psychological phenomena actually depend on physical phenomena, owing to nonreductive "supervenience" relations of some sort, or at least (ii) how psychological phenomena are just special relational (for example, causal/functional) features of wholly physically composed systems (see Kim 1992).

Apart from the relational, propositional states of belief, there are monadic states as well. The typical monadic mental states are conscious states, and their materialist character is also a topic of controversy. It is not clear how a purely material phenomenon can give rise to subjective qualities (see Chalmers 1996 and Jackson 1982), and this mystery is widely regarded as an obstacle to any fully materialist account of psychological experience. The reason for this "explanatory gap" (Levine 1983) between material composition and conscious experience may itself be illuminated by recent developments in the philosophical analysis of complexity (Bechtel and Richardson 1993; Godfrey-Smith 1996). The complex relation between the material substrate and conscious experience is likely to leave the explanation of this relation nontransparent, as it does in other cases of complex phenomena.

J.D. Trout and Paul Moser

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Last Updated: May 2004